Uncategorized

Thuraya

Thuraya

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Thuraya Telecommunications Company
Subsidiary
Industry Mobile-satellite services
Founded 1997; 23 years ago
Headquarters United Arab Emirates
Key people
Ali Al Hashemi (CEO)
Parent Al Yah Satellite Communications Edit this on Wikidata
Website www.thuraya.com

Thuraya (Arabicالثريا‎, Gulf Arabic pron.: [ɐθ.θʊˈrɑj.jɐ]; from the Arabic name for the constellation of the PleiadesThurayya)[1] is a United Arab Emirates-based regional mobile-satellite service (MSS) provider. The company operates two geosynchronous satellites and provides telecommunications coverage in more than 161 countries in Europe, the Middle EastNorthCentral and East AfricaAsia and Australia.[2] Thuraya’s L-band network delivers voice and data services

Thuraya, is the mobile satellite services subsidiary of Yahsat, a global satellite operator based in the United Arab Emirates, fully owned by Mubadala Investment Company.[citation needed]

Services

  • Voice communications with satellite phones or fixed terminals
  • Short message service
  • 60 kbit/s downlink and 15 kbit/s uplink “GMPRS” mobile data service on Thuraya satellite phones
  • 444 kbit/s high-speed data transfer via a notebook-sized terminal (ThurayaIP)
  • A number of other services, such as call waiting, missed calls, voicemail, etc.
  • A one-way “high-power alert” capability that notifies users of an incoming call, when the signal path to the satellite is obstructed

Technical details of the network

Virtual country code

Thuraya’s country calling code is +882 16, which is part of the ITU-T International Networks numbering group. Thuraya is not part of the +881 country calling code numbering group as this is allocated by ITU-T for networks in the Global Mobile Satellite System, of which Thuraya is not a part, being a regional rather than a global system.

Air interface

Transceivers communicate directly with the satellites using an antenna of roughly the same length as the handset and have a maximum output power of 2 WattsQPSK modulation is used for the air interface. Thuraya SIM cards will work in regular GSM telephones and ordinary GSM SIM cards can be used on the satellite network as long as the SIM provider has a roaming agreement with Thuraya. As with all geosynchronous voice services a noticeable lag is present while making a call.

Due to the relatively high gain of the antennas contained within handsets, it is necessary to roughly aim the antenna at the satellite. As the handsets contain a GPS receiver it is possible to program the ground position of the satellites as waypoints to assist with aiming. The service operates on L-band carriers assigned in blocks to areas of coverage referred to as “spotbeams”, which are Thuraya’s equivalent to cells or service areas. In L-band, 34 MHz of bandwidth from 1.525 GHz to 1.559 GHz is assigned for downlink (space-to-earth) communication, while the uplink (earth-to-space) operates between 1.6265 GHz and 1.6605 GHz. Uplink and downlink channels are 1087 paired carrier frequencies, on a raster of 31.25 kHz. A Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) time slot architecture is employed which allocates a carrier in timeslots of a fixed length.

Use of GPS

Every Thuraya phone and standalone transceiver unit is fitted with a GPS receiver and transmits its location to the Thuraya gateway periodically.[3][4] The built-in GPS capability can be used for waypoint navigation.

Satellites

Thuraya 2 and a nearby geostationary satellite, photographed on 8 December 2010 from the Netherlands

Thuraya operates two communications satellites built by Boeing.

Thuraya 1

The first satellite, named Thuraya 1, had deficient solar panels and could not operate properly; this satellite was positioned above Korea for testing purposes. It was launched on 21 October 2000 by Sea Launch on a Zenit 3SL rocket.[5] At launch it weighed 5250 kg.[6] The satellite was used for testing and backup until May 2007, when it was moved to junk orbit and declared at its end of life.[7]

Thuraya 2

Thuraya 2 was launched by Sea Launch on 10 June 2003.[8] It is located in geosynchronous orbit at 44° E longitude, inclined at 6.3 degrees.[9] The satellite can handle 13,750 simultaneous voice calls. This satellite currently serves most of Europe, the Middle East, Africa and parts of Asia. The craft had a weight of 3200 kg and an expected life of 12 years. The two solar-panel wings, each containing five panels, generate 11 KW electric power. The craft has two antenna systems: a round C-band antenna, 1.27 meters in diameter and a 12 × 16 meter AstroMesh reflector, 128 element L-band antenna, supplied by Astro Aerospace in Carpinteria, California. These antennas support up to 351 separate spot beams, each configurable to concentrate power where usage needs it (This Ref. leads to a 404 page ) .[10] Amateur astronomer observations suspected the nearby MENTOR 4 USA-202, a satellite belonging to the US National Reconnaissance Office, was eavesdropping on Thuraya 2 and this was reported to be confirmed by documents released on 9 September 2016[11] by The Intercept as part of the Snowden files.[12]

Thuraya 3

The third satellite was planned for launch by Sea Launch in 2007, and the start of Far East and Australia service was planned for 15 October 2007. The failure in January 2007 of the NSS-8 mission on another Sea Launch rocket led to a substantial delay in the launch of Thuraya-3, which was rescheduled for 14 November 2007, but the launch was postponed several times due to sea conditions.[13] The launch vessels set out from port again on 2 January 2008, and launch occurred successfully at 11:49 GMT on 15 January 2008.[14][15] The Thuraya 3 satellite is technically the same as Thuraya 2, but located in geosynchronous orbit at 98.5° E longitude, inclined at 6.2 degrees.

Subscriber hardware

Handsets

  • Ascom 21 – First generation handset, monochrome display, 9600 bit/s dial-up data, GSM900 compatible
  • Hughes 7100 – First generation handset, monochrome display, 9600 bit/s dial-up data, GSM900 compatible
  • Hughes 7101 – Functionally identical to Hughes 7100 but with added Wireless application protocol support
  • Thuraya SO-2510 – Second generation handset, supports GmPRS (60/15 kbit/s), runs VxWorks
  • Thuraya SG-2520 – Second generation handset, supports GmPRS (60/15 kbit/s), runs Windows CE, GSM900/1800 compatible
  • Thuraya XT – Third generation handset, supports GmPRS
  • Thuraya XT-DUAL – Third generation handset, supports GmPRS, GSM900/1800/1900
  • Thuraya XT-PRO – Third generation handset, supports GmPRS
  • Thuraya XT-LITE – Third generation handset, no packet data support
  • Thuraya XT-PRO Dual – Third generation handset, supports GmPRS, GSM, UMTS 2100
  • Thuraya X5-Touch

Sleeves

  • SatSleeve for Android
  • SatSleeve for iPhone
  • SatSleeve Plus
  • SatSleeve Hotspot
Uncategorized

Iridium Communications

Iridium Communications

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Iridium Communications Inc.
Public company
Traded as NASDAQIRDM
S&P 600 Component
Industry Satellite telecommunication
Founded 2001
Headquarters

,

United States
Area served
Worldwide
Key people
  • Matthew J. Desch (CEO) *Thomas J. Fitzpatrick (CFO) *Suzi McBride (COO)
Products Satellite communications equipment
Services Satellite voice and data services
Revenue Increase US$523.0 million (2018)[1]
Decrease US$41.7 million (2018)[1]
Decrease –US$13.4 million (2018)[1]
Total assets US$4.01 billion (2018) [2]
Total equity US$1.60 billion (2018)[2]
Number of employees
450+ (2019) [2]
Website www.iridium.com

Iridium Communications Inc. (formerly Iridium Satellite LLC) is a publicly traded American company headquartered in McLean, Virginia. Iridium operates the Iridium satellite constellation, a system of 66 active satellites (and 9 spares in space) used for worldwide voice and data communication from hand-held satellite phones and other transceiver units.[3]

History[edit]

The Iridium communications service was launched on November 1, 1998 by what was then Iridium SSC. The first Iridium call was made by Vice President of the United States Al Gore to Gilbert Grosvenor, the great-grandson of Alexander Graham Bell and chairman of the National Geographic Society.[4] Motorola provided the technology and major financial backing.[5] The logo of the company represents the Big Dipper.[6] The company derives its name from the chemical element iridium which has an atomic number of 77, equalling the initial number of satellites which were planned to be deployed. [7]

The founding company went into Chapter 11 bankruptcy nine months later, on August 13, 1999.[8] The handsets could not operate as promoted until the entire constellation of satellites was in place, requiring a massive initial capital cost running into billions of dollars.[9] The cost of service was prohibitive for many users, reception indoors was difficult and the bulkiness and expense of the hand held devices when compared to terrestrial cellular mobile phones discouraged adoption among potential users.[8]

Mismanagement is another major factor cited in the original program’s failure. In 1999, CNN writer David Rohde detailed how he applied for Iridium service and was sent information kits, but was never contacted by a sales representative. He encountered programming problems on Iridium’s website, and a “run-around” from the company’s representatives.[10] After Iridium filed bankruptcy, it cited “difficulty gaining subscribers”.[11]

The initial commercial failure of Iridium had a damping effect on other proposed commercial satellite constellation projects, including Teledesic. Other schemes (OrbcommICO Global Communications, and Globalstar) followed Iridium into bankruptcy protection, while a number of other proposed schemes were never constructed.[8]

In August 2000, Motorola announced that the Iridium satellites would have to be deorbited;[12] however, they remained in orbit and operational.[13][14] In December 2000, the US government stepped in to save Iridium by providing $72 million in exchange for a two-year contract and approving the fire-sale of the company from US bankruptcy court for $25 million,[12] in March 2001. This erased over $4 billion in debt.[15]

Iridium service was restarted in 2001 by the newly founded Iridium Satellite LLC, which was owned by a group of private investors. Although the satellites and other assets and technology behind Iridium were estimated to have cost around $6 billion, the investors bought the firm for about $35 million.[9]

On February 10, 2009, Iridium 33 collided with a defunct Russian satellite, Kosmos 2251, 800 kilometres (500 mi) over Siberia.[16] Two large debris clouds were created.[17]

Iridium NEXT launch campaign[edit]

Iridium replaced its original constellation by sending 75 new Iridium satellites into space on SpaceX Falcon 9 rockets. The campaign also consisted of upgrades to Iridium ground infrastructure.

The Iridium NEXT launch campaign was announced in 2007. Within three years, Iridium completed financing and began work on launching new satellites. In June 2010, Iridium announced a fixed-price contract with Thales Alenia Space for the design and construction of the next-generation satellites for the upgraded constellation.[18] Two weeks later, Iridium announced a $492 million contract designated the Falcon 9 as a major provider of launch services for the Iridium NEXT campaign, becoming the largest single commercial launch deal ever signed (simultaneously representing a benchmark in cost-effective satellite delivery to space).[19]

On January 14, 2017, 10 years after the campaign was first announced, the first of eight Iridium NEXT launches took place with SpaceX from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California.[20] Over the next two years, Iridium sent an additional 65 satellites into low Earth orbit to completely replace the original satellite constellation. The final Iridium NEXT launch took place on January 11, 2019, less than 2 years after the first launch.[21]

The Iridium NEXT network covers the entire Earth, including poles, oceans and airways, with 66 satellites, with the remaining 9 acting as active backups, for a total of 75 launched.[3] Six remain on the ground as spares for a total of 81 built.[citation needed]

Present status[edit]

Iridium Satellite LLC merged with a special purpose acquisition company (GHQ) created by the investment bank Greenhill & Co. in September 2009 to create Iridium Communications Inc. The public company trades on Nasdaq under the symbol “IRDM”. The company surpassed one million subscribers in March 2018.[22] Revenue for the full year 2018 was US$523.0 million with operational EBITDA of US$302.0 million, a 14% increase from $265.6 million in the prior year.[23]

Iridium manages several operations centers, including Tempe, Arizona and Leesburg, Virginia, United States.

The system is being used by the U.S. Department of Defense.[24][citation needed not current from 1998]

Matt Desch is the CEO of Iridium LLC.[25]

Hosted Payload Alliance[edit]

Iridium is a founding member of the Hosted Payload Alliance (HPA), a satellite industry alliance program. Membership in the HPA is open to satellite operators, satellite manufacturers, system integrators, and other interested parties.[26]

Iridium satellite constellation[edit]

The Iridium system requires 66 active satellites in orbit to complete its constellation and spare satellites are kept in-orbit to serve in case of failure. The satellites are in six polar low Earth orbital planes at a height of approximately 485 miles (780 km). Satellites communicate with neighboring satellites via Ka band intersatellite links to relay communications to and from ground stations. The original constellation was launched in the late 1990s before the company went through bankruptcy. In January 2017, Iridium began launch next-generation satellites through its $3 billion launch campaign, Iridium NEXT. The new satellites were sent into space on SpaceX Falcon 9 launch vehicles from Vandenberg AFB Space Launch Complex 4 in California over the course of eight launches between January 2017 and January 2019.[27][28] On January 14, 2017, SpaceX launched 10 of the new Iridium satellites into orbit.[29] The second launch of Iridium NEXT satellites took place on June 25, 2017 on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket out of Vandenberg Air Force Base. This was the second of eight scheduled launches.[30] The third launch of 10 NEXT satellites took place on October 9, 2017. On December 22, 2017, ten additional satellites were deployed after a successful launch on a SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket. On May 22, SpaceX successfully launched an additional five Iridium NEXT satellites from Vandenberg Air Force Base.[31]

On January 11, 2019, the final ten satellites were placed in orbit by SpaceX.[32]

Subscriber equipment[edit]

Handsets[edit]

Iridium offers four satellite handsets: the 9555, 9575A (which is only available to US government customers), the Extreme, and the Extreme PTT.[33]

Pagers[edit]

Two pagers were made for the Iridium network – the Motorola 9501 and Kyocera SP-66K.[34] These are one-way devices that could receive messages sent in the form of SMS.

Other satellite phones[edit]

Several other Iridium-based telephones exist, such as payphones,[35] and equipment intended for installation on ships and aircraft. The DPL handset made by NAL Research combined with a 9522 transceiver is used for some of these products. This handset provides a user interface nearly identical to that of the 9505 series phones.[36]

Standalone transceiver units[edit]

These can be used for data-logging applications in remote areas. Some types of buoys, such as those used for the tsunami warning system, use Iridium satellites to communicate with their base. The remote device is programmed to call or send short burst data (SBD) messages to the base at specified intervals, or it can be set to accept calls in order for it to offload its collected data.

The following transceivers have been released over the years:

  • Iridium Core 9523 – Similar to the 9522B, a modular transceiver released in 2012, designed to be an embedded solution.[buzzword]
  • Iridium 9522B – A transceiver released in late 2008, is smaller than the 9522A and has similar features. It also supports Circuit-Switched Data (CSD), not just SBD.
  • Iridium 9522A – Based on the 9522, some variants have built in GPS and autonomous reporting functions. Supports SBD.
  • Motorola 9522 – Last Motorola transceiver, supports outgoing SMS but no SBD.
  • Motorola 9520 – Original transceiver module, does not support outgoing SMS or SBD. Designed for use in vehicles with accompanying handset[37]

Short burst data modems[edit]

These devices support only SBD for Internet of things (IoT) services and do not use a SIM card.

  • Iridium 9601 – Supports only SBD, several tracking devices and other products have been built around this modem. It was an Iridium manufactured product designed as an OEM module for integration into applications that only use the Iridium Short Burst Data Service. Short Burst Data applications are supported through an RS-232 interface. Examples of these applications include maritime vessel tracking or automatic vehicle tracking.[38]
  • Iridium 9602 – Smaller, cheaper version of 9601 (released in 2010).[39]
  • Iridium 9603 – One-fourth the volume and half the footprint of 9602[40]

Iridium OpenPort[edit]

Iridium OpenPort is a broadband satellite voice and data communications system for maritime vessels. The system is used for crew calling and e-mail services on sea vessels such as merchant fleets, government and navy vessels, fishing fleets and personal yachts.[41]

Iridium operates at only 2.2 to 3.8 kbit/s, which requires very aggressive voice compression[42] and decompression algorithms.[43] (By comparison, AMR used in 3G phones requires a minimum of 4.75 kbit/s, G.729 requires 6.4 kbit/s, and iLBC requires 13.33 kbit/s.) Latency for data connections averages 1800 ms round-trip, with a mode of 1300 to 1400 ms and a minimum around 980 ms.[44] Latency is highly variable depending on the path data takes through the satellite constellation as well the need for retransmissions due to errors, which may be around 2 to 3% for mobile originated packets under good conditions.

Paging Service[edit]

The one-way paging service is still operational, despite the pagers not being in production for many years now[citation needed][when?]. Messages are delivered to pre-selected “MDAs” which cover a certain geographic area. Three of these MDAs may be selected on a web-based portal or updated automatically if the paging service is bound to an Iridium phone. Each country has its own MDA based on its country code; some of the larger countries are divided into several MDAs, while separate MDAs exist for sections of ocean and common aeronautic routes.

Pagers are assigned with telephone numbers in area code 480 and can also be contacted using email, SMS and the web-based interface used to send messages to Iridium phones.[45]

Air safety communications[edit]

In July 2011, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issued a ruling that approves the use of Iridium for Future Air Navigation System (FANS) data links, enabling satellite data links with air-traffic control for aircraft flying in the FANS environment, including areas not served by Inmarsat (above or below 70 degrees latitude) which includes polar routes.[46]

See also[edit]

Uncategorized

Broadband Global Area Network

Broadband Global Area Network

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The Broadband Global Area Network (BGAN) is a global satellite network with telephony using portable terminals. The terminals are normally used to connect a laptop computer to broadband Internet in remote locations, although as long as line-of-sight to the satellite exists, the terminal can be used anywhere. The value of BGAN terminals is that, unlike other satellite Internet services which require bulky and heavy satellite dishes to connect, a BGAN terminal is about the size of a laptop and thus can be carried easily. The network is provided by Inmarsat and uses three geostationary satellites called I-4 to provide almost global coverage.[1]

BGAN Terminals, such as this Hughes 9202, are portable and can connect to the Internet from almost anywhere on the globe.

Details[edit]

Downlink speeds of high-end BGAN terminals are up to 492 kbit/s and upload speeds are also up to 492 kbit/s – Best Effort as BGAN Background IP (BIP) is a contended (shared) channel. As with all geosynchronous satellite connections, latency is an issue. Common latency is 1–1.5 seconds round trip for the Background IP service. It is slightly better for the Streaming services at 800 ms – 1 second. This latency is mainly due to the great distance that has to be traveled before a packet can reach the Internet, but is slightly exacerbated by the back-end technology as normal latency over a Very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system is roughly 550 ms. BGAN users frequently use PEP software or other TCP packet accelerators to improve performance, and the BGAN user is often assigned a non-routable IP address and routed through a NAT server; this increases security and helps control usage costs.

BGAN terminals are made by multiple manufacturers. They all have similar capabilities. The main two that apply to basic BGAN usage are the Standard Background IP (Internet) and Telephone Voice. Data costs from the many ISPs that offer BGAN service average about US$7.50 per Background Megabyte. Voice calling is on average US$1 per min and varies slightly based on the destination of the call (Land lines, Cell phones, other Satellite phones which are the most expensive).

BGAN can be easily set up by anyone, and has excellent voice calling quality. It uses the L band, avoiding rain fade and other issues affecting satellite systems operating at higher frequency bands.

Signal acquisition[edit]

The actual process of connecting a BGAN terminal to the satellite is fairly straightforward. The BGAN terminal needs to find its position using GPS, before it can negotiate with the satellite, so a clear view of the sky is necessary to begin with. Once the GPS position is obtained, it does not need to do that again unless it is moved to a different region. Obtaining the initial GPS position can take a few minutes. The terminal then needs a line-of-sight to the geostationary satellite so a user would normally be outside, and have a general idea of what direction the satellite would be (with a compass if necessary). Turning the terminal slowly by hand, it will give some indication when the satellite is found. Then usually with the touch of one button, the terminal auto-negotiates with the satellite and connects. The average pointing time for a BGAN unit is 2 minutes, under a minute with an experienced user and a good signal. BGAN is being used in the world today for disaster response, telemedicine, business continuity, remote site monitoring (telemetry), military use, and recreational use.

Terminals[edit]

Terminal manufactures are Thrane & ThraneHughes Network Systems,[2] and Addvalue. Terminal cost is between US$1800 and US$5000 varying based on class and capabilities of the various systems. Depending on terminal type users can connect their computers via USBBluetoothWiFi, or Ethernet connection(s). This allows them to access the Internet, check e-mail, download files, or any other Internet activity they might do at a home or office. Many come equipped with a regular RJ11 Phone Jack for making PSTN calls, using an ordinary telephone handset, and many terminals have an ISDN connection to do ISDN phone calls. Some BGAN terminals have both so users can make either type of phone call. Users can also send faxes or SMS text messages. Most BGAN terminals can support a router or switch device so users can plug in multiple computers or even VOIP phones and set up a mobile office.

Coverage and availability[edit]

The BGAN service is accessible globally, excluding the poles.[3]

Service types[edit]

There is more than one kind of BGAN service available from Inmarsat for BGAN terminals.

Standard[edit]

The Standard BGAN service from Inmarsat provides Internet, phone, SMS texting, Fax, ISDN and streaming services. It is designed for use with all BGAN terminals except the Hughes 9502 which uses the BGAN M2M service (below).

Standard +[edit]

The Standard + Plus BGAN service introduced by Inmarsat in May 2017 provides unlimited Internet use for a low fixed monthly price using consumer grade routing. While not as high priority routing as Standard BGAN service, Standard + does have the same priority as the IsatHub Inmarsat network which is used worldwide. Standard + has a low monthly subscription that includes 5 Megabytes each month, and then bills at a fixed “tier” rate on if more than 5 Megabytes are used each month.

M2M[edit]

BGAN M2M Service, launched in February 2012, is a low-bandwidth service for remote SCADA or M2M (machine to machine) equipment monitoring and control. BGAN M2M service is offered in 2, 5, 10 and 20 Megabyte monthly service plans. BGAN M2M service does not charge for overhead communication, and the smallest billing increment is 1 kilobyte, which is ideal for M2M communication (standard BGAN service has a 50 Kilobyte minimum transfer increment). BGAN M2M service is currently only available to the Hughes 9502 BGAN terminal.

Link[edit]

BGAN Link, launched in March 2012, is for fixed locations that require 5 to 30 Gigabytes of data transferred per month. In late 2013, Inmarsat introduced Unlimited BGAN Link “GEO” plans for certain countries/regions including Central and South America, Australia and lower Africa. Service fees with BGAN Link are far less than standard BGAN service, making this service more comparable to VSAT satellite dish services. One advantage of BGAN terminals are their low power usage (4 watts idle to 22 watts burst transmitting) which is much less than satellite dish systems that use 90 to 150 watts when idle or transmitting. BGAN Link service is only available with Class 1 BGAN terminals (the Hughes 9201 or the Explorer 700/710) and service terms are 3 and 12 months terms. Terminals may move 4 times per year with 30 days notice with a +$1,000 usd transfer cost, and must be at location for no less than 3 months. All standard BGAN services are available with BGAN Link (Internet, phone, SMS texting, FAX, Streaming). While BGAN Link service is global, approval by Inmarsat for activation is required.

Variants[edit]

BGAN terminals are allowed to be used on the open ocean on a moving vessel. But because the vessel will be moving there is great chances to lose the signal and then the connection. Inmarsat informed DPs that the Core network is not blocking these connections.

Inmarsat has created the FleetBroadband service that uses the I4 satellites for maritime communication.

Standard BGAN terminals cannot be used on moving aircraft due to doppler shift effects. An alternative service using more intelligent terminals to talk to the I4 satellites, named SwiftBroadband, has been developed for aircraft use.

News coverage[edit]

Sky News correspondent Alex Crawford used BGAN equipment to provide live coverage, from a moving truck, of the news network’s coverage of the liberation of Tripoli, Libya, in August 2011. This was done by the producer continuously readjusting the BGAN terminal to track the BGAN satellite. In-Motion BGAN satellite terminals are often used by media outlets for streaming video on the move. Another advantage to in-motion BGAN systems are for saving precious minutes when arriving at a live event. A media vehicle equipped with an in-motion system does not require pointing time since the in-motion BGAN terminal is already locked on satellite.

High Data Rate[edit]

Since late 2013 the service is available in an enhanced form known as HDR. HDR can exceed symmetric 700 kbit/s on select terminals and also support bonding for a total bandwidth exceeding 1 Mbit/s. As of 2016 the only terminal to support the full set of modes and bonding is the Cobham Explorer 710.[4][5]

See also[edit]

Uncategorized

Mobile equipment identifier

Mobile equipment identifier

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from MEID)

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mobile equipment identifier (MEID) is a globally unique number identifying a physical piece of CDMA2000 mobile station equipment. The number format is defined by the 3GPP2 report S.R0048 but in practical terms, it can be seen as an IMEI but with hexadecimal digits.

Regional code Manufacturer code Serial number CD
R R X X X X X X Z Z Z Z Z Z C

An MEID is 56 bits long (14 hexadecimal digits). It consists of three fields, including an 8-bit regional code (RR), a 24-bit manufacturer code, and a 24-bit manufacturer-assigned serial number. The check digit (CD) is not considered part of the MEID.

The MEID was created to replace ESNs, whose virgin form was exhausted in November 2008.[1] As of TIA/EIA/IS-41 Revision D and TIA/EIA/IS-2000 Rev C, the ESN is still a required field in many messages—for compatibility, devices with an MEID can use a pseudo-ESN (pESN), which is a manufacturer code of 0x80 (formerly reserved) followed by the least significant 24 bits of the SHA-1 hash of the MEID.[2] MEIDs are used on CDMA mobile phones. GSM phones do not have ESN or MIN, only an International Mobile Station Equipment Identity (IMEI) number.

Obtaining the MEID[edit]

Commonly, opening the phone’s dialler and typing *#06# will display its MEID.[3]

Administration[edit]

The separation between international mobile equipment identifiers (IMEIs) used by GSM/UMTS and MEIDs is based on the number ranges. There are two administrators: the global decimal administrator (GDA) for IMEIs and the global hexadecimal administrator (GHA).

As of August 2006, the TIA acts as the GHA to assign MEID code prefixes (0xA0 and up), and the GSM Association acts as the global decimal administrator. http://www.babt.com/gsm-imei-number-allocation.asp723889TIA also allocates IMEI codes, specifically destined for dual-technology phones, out of the RR=99 range. Other administrators working under GSMA may also allocate any IMEI for use in dual-technology phones. Every IMEI can also be used as an MEID in CDMA2000 devices (as well as in single-mode devices designed with GSM or other 3GPP protocols) but MEID codes may also contain hexadecimal digits and this class of MEID codes cannot be used as an IMEI.

Display formats[edit]

There are two standard formats for MEIDs, and both can include an optional check-digit. This is defined by 3GPP2 standard X.S0008.

The hexadecimal form is specified to be 14 digits grouped together and applies whether all digits are in the decimal range or whether some are in the range ‘A’–’F’. In the first case, all digits are in the range ‘0’–’9′, the check-digit is calculated using the normal base 10 Luhn algorithm, but if at least one digit is in the range ‘A’–’F’ this check digit algorithm uses base 16 arithmetic. The check-digit is never transmitted or stored. It is intended to detect most (but not all) input errors, it is not intended to be a checksum or CRC to detect transmission errors. Consequently, it may be printed on phones or their packaging in case of manual entry of an MEID (e.g. because there is no bar code or the bar code is unreadable).

The decimal form is specified to be 18 digits grouped in a 5–5–4–4 pattern and is calculated by converting the manufacturer code portion (32 bits) to decimal and padding on the left with ‘0’ digits to 10 digits and separately converting the serial number portion to decimal and padding on the left to 8 digits. A check-digit can be calculated from the 18 digit result using the standard base 10 Luhn algorithm and appended to the end. Note that to produce this form the MEID digits are treated as base 16 numbers even if all of them are in the range ‘0’–9′.

pESN conflicts[edit]

Because the pESN is formed by a hash on the MEID there is the potential for hash collisions. These will cause an extremely rare condition known as a ‘collision’ on a pure ESN-only network as the ESN is used for the calculation of the Public Long Code Mask (PLCM) used for communication with the base-station. Two mobiles using the same pESN within the same base-station area (operating on the same frequency) can result in call setup and page failures.

The probability of a collision has been carefully examined.[4] Roughly, it is estimated that even on a heavily loaded network the frequency of this situation is closer to 1 out of 1 million calls than to 1 out of 100 000.

3GPP2 specification C.S0072 provides a solution to this problem by allowing the PLCM to be established by the base station. It is easy for the base station to ensure that all PLCM codes are unique when this is done. This specification also allows the PLCM to be based on the MEID or IMSI.

A different problem occurs when ESN codes are stored in a database (such as for OTASP). In this situation, the risk of at least two phones having the same pseudo-ESN can be calculated using the birthday paradox and works out to about a 50 per cent probability in a database with 4,800 pseudo-ESN entries. 3GPP2 specifications C.S0016 (Revision C or higher) and C.S0066 have been modified to allow the replacement MEID identifier to be transmitted, resolving this problem.

Another problem is that messages delivered on the forward paging channel using the pESN as an address could be delivered to multiple mobiles seemingly randomly. This problem can be avoided by using mobile identification number (MIN) or IMSI based addressing instead.

Code to convert[edit]

This short Python script will convert an MEID to a pESN.

import hashlib

meid = input("Enter a MEID: ").upper()

bytes = bytearray.fromhex(meid)
s = hashlib.sha1(bytes)
# Decode the hex MEID (convert it to binary!)

pesn = "80" + s.hexdigest()[-6:].upper()
# Put the last 6 digits of the hash after 80

print("pESN: " + pesn)

The CDG also provides a javascript calculator with more conversion options.

This C# method will convert an MEID from HEX to DEC format (or return empty for an invalid MEID HEX value)

public static string HexToDecimal(string input)
{
    if (input.Length != 14)
    {
        return ""; // Not a valid hex MEID.
    }
    string hexPart1 = input.Substring(0, 8);
    string hexPart2 = input.Substring(8, 6);
    try
    {
        string decPart1 = int.Parse(hexPart1, System.Globalization.NumberStyles.HexNumber).ToString().PadLeft(10, '0');
        string decPart2 = int.Parse(hexPart2, System.Globalization.NumberStyles.HexNumber).ToString().PadLeft(8, '0');
        return decPart1 + decPart2;
    }
    catch (System.FormatException ex)
    {
        return ""; // Hex parse failed, not a valid hex MEID.
    }
}

Uncategorized

Type Allocation Code

Type Allocation Code

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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The Type Allocation Code (TAC) is the initial eight-digit portion of the 15-digit IMEI and 16-digit IMEISV codes used to uniquely identify wireless devices.

The Type Allocation Code identifies a particular model (and often revision) of wireless telephone for use on a GSMUMTS or other IMEI-employing wireless network.

The first two digits of the TAC are the Reporting Body Identifier. This indicates the GSMA-approved group that allocated the TAC.

Prior to January 1, 2003, the global standard for the IMEI started with a six-digit Type Approval Code followed by a two-digit Final Assembly Code (FAC). The Type Approval Code (also known as TAC) indicated that the particular device was approved by a national GSM approval body and the FAC identified the company that had built and assembled the device (which is not always the same as the brand name stamped on the device).

Effective on that date, many GSM member nations and entities (mainly Europe) moved away from requiring that devices be approved by national bodies, and towards a system where device manufacturers self-regulate the device market. As a result, a manufacturer now simply requests an eight-digit Type Allocation Code for a new phone model from the international GSM standards body, instead of submitting a device for approval to a national review body.

Both the old and new TAC uniquely identify a model of phone, although some models may have more than one code, depending on revision, manufacturing location, and other factors.

TAC examples[edit]

TAC Manufacturer Model Internal Model Number
01124500 Apple
01130000
01136400 Apple
01154600 Apple iPhone MB384LL
01161200 Apple iPhone 3G
01174400 Apple iPhone 3G MB496RS
01180800 Apple iPhone 3G MB704LL
01181200 Apple iPhone 3G MB496B
01193400 Apple iPhone 3G
01194800 Apple iPhone 3GS
01215800 Apple iPhone 3GS
01215900 Apple iPhone 3GS MC131B
01216100 Apple iPhone 3GS
01226800 Apple iPhone 3GS
01233600 Apple iPhone 4 MC608LL
01233700 Apple iPhone 4 MC603B
01233800 Apple iPhone 4 MC610LL
01241700 Apple iPhone 4
01242000 Apple iPhone 4
01243000 Apple iPhone 4 MC603KS
01253600 Apple iPhone 4 MC610LL/A
01254200 Apple iPhone 4
01300600 Apple iPhone 4S MD260C
01326300 Apple iPhone 4 MD198HN/A
01332700 Apple iPhone 5 MD642C
01388300 Apple iPhone 5S ME297C/A
35875105 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35875205 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35875305 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35875405 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35875505 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35875605 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35875705 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35875805 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35875905 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35876005 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35880005 Apple iPhone 5C A1507
35880105 Apple iPhone 5C A1507
35880205 Apple iPhone 5C A1507
35880305 Apple iPhone 5C A1507
35880405 Apple iPhone 5C A1507
35880505 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35880605 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35880705 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35951406 Samsung Galaxy Tab E SM-T5613474
35880805 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35880905 Apple iPhone 5S A1453
35881005 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35881105 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35881205 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35881305 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35881405 Apple iPhone 5S A1533
35881505 Apple iPhone 5C A1456
35881605 Apple iPhone 5C A1456
35881705 Apple iPhone 5C A1456
35881805 Apple iPhone 5C A1456
35881905 Apple iPhone 5C A1456
35201906 Apple iPhone 5S A1457
35925406 Apple iPhone 6 A1549
35438506 Apple iPhone 6+ A1522
35325807 Apple iPhone 6s A1633
350151.. Nokia 3330
35089080 Nokia 3410 NHM-2NX
35099480 Nokia 3410 NHM-2NX
35148420 Nokia 3410 NHM-2NX
35148820 Nokia 6310i NPL-1
35151304 Nokia E72-1 RM-530
35154900 Nokia 6310i NPL-1
35171005 Sony Ericsson Xperia S
35174605 Google Galaxy Nexus Samsung GT-I9250, Samsung GT-I9250TSGGEN
35191405 Motorola Defy Mini
35226005 Samsung Galaxy SIII
35238402 Sony Ericsson K770i
35274901 Nokia 6233
35291402 Nokia 6210 Navigator
35316004 ZTE Blade
35316605 Samsung Galaxy S3 GT-I9300
35332705 Samsung Galaxy SII GT-I9100
35328504 Samsung Galaxy S GT-I9000
32930400 Samsung Galaxy S7
35351200 Motorola V300
35357800 Samsung SGH-A800
35376800 Nokia 6230
35391805 Google Nexus 4 LG E960
35405600 Wavecom M1306B
35421803 Nokia 5310 RM-303
35433004 Nokia C5-00 RM-645
35450502 GlobeTrotter HSDPA Modem
35511405 Sony Ericsson Xperia U
35524803 Nokia 2330C-2 RM-512
35566600 Nokia 6230
35569500 Nokia 1100
35679404 Samsung Galaxy Mini GT-S5570
35685702 Nokia 6300
35693803 Nokia N900
35694603 Nokia 2700
35699601 Nokia N95
35700804 Nokia C1
35714904 Huawei E398U-15 LTE Stick
35733104 Samsung Galaxy Gio
35739804 Nokia N8
35744105 Samsung Galaxy S4 GT-I9505
35765206 Sony Xperia Z3 Compact D5803
35788104 Nokia N950
35803106 HTC HTC One M8s
35824005 Google Nexus 5 LG D820/D821
35828103 Nokia 6303C
35836800 Nokia 6230i
35837501 XDA Orbit 2
35837800 Nokia N6030 RM-74
35838706 LG G Stylo LG-H631
35850000 Nokia Lumia 720
35851004 Sony Ericsson Xperia Active
35853704 Samsung Galaxy SII
35869205 Apple iPhone 5S MF353TA/A
35876105 Apple iPhone 5S A1457
35896704 HTC Desire S
35902803 HTC Wildfire
35903908 Samsung Galaxy S8 SM-G950F
35909205 Samsung Galaxy Note III SM-N9000, SM-N9005, SM-N900
35918804 HTC One X
35920605 Nokia Lumia 625
35447909 Nokia Nokia 1 TA-1079
35604008 Nokia Nokia 2 TA-1023
35602508 Nokia Nokia 5 TA-1027
35929005 Motorola Moto G XT1039
35933005 OROD 6468
35935003 Nokia 2720A-2 RM-519
35972100 Lobster 544
35974101 GlobeTrotter HSDPA Modem
35979504 Samsung Galaxy Note
449337.. Nokia 6210
86107402 Quectel Queclink GV200
86217001 Quectel Queclink GV200
86723902 ZTE Corporation Rook from EE, Orange Dive 30, Blade A410
86813001 Jiayu G3S JY-G3
00000000 N/A typical fake TAC codes, usually in software damaged phones
01234567 N/A typical fake TAC codes, usually in software damaged phones
12345678 N/A typical fake TAC codes, usually in software damaged phones
13579024 N/A typical fake TAC codes, usually in software damaged phones
88888888 N/A typical fake TAC codes, usually in software damaged phones
01333200 Apple iPhone 5
99000481 Samsung Galaxy note 4 GM-N910V
35808005 Sony Sony C6833 – XPERIA Z ULTRA
35815207 Samsung Samsung S7
35415808 Samsung Samsung J7 Prime
35664906 Samsung Xcover 271 GT-B2710
35330509 Samsung Galaxy S9 SM-G960U
35326907 Apple iPhone 6s A1688
35197310 irisguard EyePay Phone
35664906 Samsung Xcover 271 GT-B2710
35314409 Go Mobile GO Onyx LTE GO1004
86092103 Huawei P9 Lite 2016
35293708 Samsung Galaxy A5 2016 SM-A510F
35684610 Samsung Galaxy Fold 5G
01459300 WondaLink T-Mobile LineLink ML700
86881303 Xiaomi Redmi Note 5
35620409 Samsung Galaxy J7 2017

See also[edit]

Uncategorized

CTIA (organization)

CTIA (organization)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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CTIA
CTIA logo 2015.png
The organization’s logo
Established 1984; 36 years ago
Headquarters 1400 16th Street, NW, Suite 600
Location
Key people
Meredith Attwell Baker (President and CEO)
Website www.ctia.org

The logo from 2004 through 2015

CTIA is a trade association representing the wireless communications industry in the United States. The association was established in 1984 and is headquartered in Washington, D.C. It is a 501(c)(6)[1] nonprofit membership organization,[2][3][4] and represents wireless carriers and suppliers, and manufacturers and providers of wireless products and services.[5][6]

CTIA operates certification programs for the wireless industry and publishes wireless industry surveys.[5][7][8] It has also sponsored various public service initiatives related to wireless.

It was originally known as the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association until 2004, and later the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association. The organization has since operated under its initialism only, but subtitled as CTIA – The Wireless Association until 2015.

History[edit]

CTIA was established in May 1984 as the Cellular Telecommunications Industry Association.[9] In 2000, the organization merged with the Wireless Data Forum and became the Cellular Telecommunications and Internet Association.[1][10] Its name was changed to CTIA—The Wireless Association in 2004.[1]

Tom Wheeler served as chief executive officer (CEO) of CTIA from 1992 to 2004.[11] He was appointed chairman of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the United States Senate in November 2013.[11]

Steve Largent became president and CEO in November 2003, serving until 2014.[12][13] Meredith Attwell Baker became CTIA’s president and CEO in June 2014.[14][15]

Issue advocacy[edit]

Spectrum[edit]

When Baker was named president and CEO, she identified spectrum as a policy priority.[16] She has testified before Congress on the issue,[17] and in a March 2016 media call, Baker said the industry is ready to invest billions of dollars to fund spectrum and new infrastructure, suggesting the “spectrum pipeline should become a national priority” because “100 MHz of spectrum is equal to $30 billion to the economy and 1 million jobs.”[18]

In 2016, CTIA released reports outlining the importance of U.S. leadership in 5G and high band spectrum.[19][20] CTIA praised the FCC’s unanimous vote in July 2016 to allow wireless operations above 24 GHz.[21]

Broadband and net neutrality[edit]

CTIA supported the FCC retaining “the 2010 open Internet order’s ‘mobile specific’ approach to [regulations] given the ‘unique engineering, competitive and legal conditions’ of 4G LTE, rather than a one-size-fits both wired and wireless approach”, in a letter from Baker to Rep. Greg Walden (ROre.), chairman of the House Energy Subcommittee on Communications and Technology, in September 2014.[22]

In January 2015, Baker testified on the importance of an open Internet but against the reclassification of mobile broadband as a Title II (common carrier) service under the Communications Act of 1934 at a hearing held by the House Energy and Commerce Subcommittee on Communications and Technology.[23] Two months later, CTIA, the National Cable and Telecommunications Association (NCTA), and USTelecom, filed legal challenges against the FCC’s net neutrality order reclassifying broadband under Title II.[24]

Wireless infrastructure[edit]

CTIA has helped lead efforts to remove regulatory barriers,[weasel words] at all levels of government, to the deployment of wireless infrastructure, particularly small cells and distributed antenna systems (DAS).[25]

Industry trade shows[edit]

CTIA has organized trade shows for the wireless industry, including the CTIA Wireless Show, and MobileCON. In January 2013, it was announced that both events would be replaced by a new event known as CTIA Super Mobility, first held in September 2014. The following year’s conference featured 1,000 exhibitors and attracted 30,000 visitors.[26]

In June 2016, CTIA announced a partnership with the GSM Association, under which Super Mobility Week would be re-launched as Mobile World Congress Americas beginning in 2017.[26][27]

CTIA Wireless Foundation[edit]

CTIA’s nonprofit organization, CTIA Wireless Foundation supports initiatives that use wireless technology to assist communities. The foundation partnered with American Red Cross to create the “Text2HELP” program to help aid victims of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunamiHurricane Katrina, and the 2010 Haiti earthquake. The program enabled wireless customers to send text messages to make donations to American Red Cross’ relief efforts.[28][29][30][31]

The foundation is a major sponsor of PulsePoint, a no-cost app that alerts users of nearby cardiac arrest emergencies so they can offer first aid before first responders arrive.[32][33] The foundation also supports “text4baby”, a no-cost mobile texting program that provides information to parents and caregivers on prenatal care and baby health and parenting.[34]

See also[edit]

Uncategorized

Metropolitan Police Service

Metropolitan Police Service

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Metropolitan Police Service
Metropolitan Police Service logo.svg
Logo
Flag of the Metropolitan Police Service.svg
Flag
Common name The Met[1]
Abbreviation MPS[2]
Agency overview
Formed 29 September 1829; 190 years ago[3]
Preceding agencies
Employees 43,000+ in total[5]
31,075 police officers[5]
8,732 police staff[5]
1,464 PCSOs[5]
Volunteers 1,731 special constables
1,500 Met Police volunteers
3,658 volunteer police cadets
Annual budget £3.24 billion[6]
Legal personality Police force
Jurisdictional structure
Operations jurisdiction Greater London (minus City of London), England, United Kingdom
England Police Forces (Metropolitan).svg
Map of police area
Size 1,578 km2 (609 sq mi)
Population more than 8 million[8]
Legal jurisdiction England and Wales
(throughout the whole of the United Kingdom, including Scotland and Northern Ireland, under certain limited circumstances)
Primary governing body Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime
Secondary governing body Home Office
Constituting instruments
General nature
Operational structure
Overviewed by Home Office/HMIC/IPOC
Headquarters New Scotland Yard
Victoria Embankment
London
SW1A 2JL[9]
Police officers 31,075 full time
1731 special constables
PCSOs 1,464
Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime responsible
Agency executives
Facilities
Stations 180[citation needed]
Boats 22
Dogs 250
Website
www.met.police.uk Edit this at Wikidata

The Metropolitan Police Service (MPS), formerly and still commonly known as the Metropolitan Police and informally as the MetScotland Yard, or the Yard, is the territorial police force responsible for law enforcement in the Metropolitan Police District, which currently consists of the 32 London boroughs.[10] The MPD does not include the “square mile” of the City of London, which is policed by the much smaller City of London Police.

The Met also has significant national responsibilities, such as co-ordinating and leading on UK-wide national counter-terrorism matters and protecting the Royal Family, certain members of Her Majesty’s Government and others as deemed appropriate.[11] As the police force for the capital, the Met has significant unique responsibilities and challenges within its police area, such as protecting 164 foreign embassies and High Commissions,[12] policing Heathrow Airport (the busiest airport in Europe), policing and protecting the Palace of Westminster, and dealing with significantly more protests and events than any other force in the country (3,500 such events in 2016).[12]

As of March 2018, the Met had 40,327 full-time personnel. This included 30,390 police officers, 8,027 police staff, 1,315 police community support officers and 595 designated officers.[13] This number excludes the 1,731 special constables, who work voluntarily part-time (a minimum of 16 hours a month) and who have the same powers and uniform as their regular colleagues. This makes the Metropolitan Police, in terms of officer numbers, the largest police force in the United Kingdom by a significant margin, and one of the biggest in the world.[14] In terms of its police area (primary geographic area of responsibility), leaving its national responsibilities aside, the Met has the eighth-smallest police area of the territorial police forces in the United Kingdom.

The overall operational leader of the force is the Commissioner, whose formal title is Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis. The Commissioner is answerable, responsible and accountable to the Queen, the Home Office and the Mayor of London, through the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime. The post of Commissioner was first held jointly by Sir Charles Rowan and Sir Richard MayneCressida Dick was appointed Commissioner in April 2017.

A number of informal names and abbreviations are applied to the Metropolitan Police Service, the most common being the Met. In colloquial London (or Cockney slang), it is sometimes referred to as the Old Bill.[15] The Met is also referred to as Scotland Yard after the location of its original headquarters in a road called Great Scotland Yard in Whitehall.[16] The Met’s current headquarters is New Scotland Yard, situated on the Victoria Embankment.

History[edit]

The Metropolitan Police Service was founded in 1829 by Robert Peel under the Metropolitan Police Act 1829 and on 29 September of that year, the first constables of the service appeared on the streets of London.[17] In 1839, the Marine Police Force, which had been formed in 1798, was amalgamated into the Metropolitan Police.[18] In 1837, it also incorporated with the Bow Street Horse Patrol that had been organised in 1805.[19]

In 1999, the organisation was described as “institutionally racist” in the Macpherson Report. Just under twenty years later, police leaders said that this was no longer the case, but that the service would be “disproportionately white” for at least another one hundred years.[20]

Governance[edit]

Since January 2012, the Mayor of London is responsible for the governance of the Metropolitan Police through the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC).[21] The mayor is able to appoint someone to act on his behalf. As of April 2019, the office-holder is Deputy Mayor for Policing and Crime, Sophie Linden.[22] The work of MOPAC is scrutinised by the Police and Crime Committee (also known as a police and crime panel) of the London Assembly. These structures were created by the Police Reform and Social Responsibility Act 2011 and replaced the Metropolitan Police Authority-appointed board created in 2000 by Greater London Authority Act 1999.

Police area and other forces[edit]

Carved whale bone whistle dated 1821. 8 cm long. Belonged to a ‘Peeler’ in the Metropolitan Police Service in London in the early 19th century.

Metropolitan Police officers talk to a seated woman, July 1976.

Helmet of the Metropolitan Police

The area policed by the Metropolitan Police Service is known as the Metropolitan Police District (MPD). In terms of geographic policing, the Met was divided into 32 Borough Operational Command Units that directly aligned with the 32 London boroughs covered. This situation has changed since 2017, as the Met has attempted to save money due to cuts in funding. There is currently a period of transition which will result in the MPD being divided into 12 Basic Command Units made up of two, three or four boroughs. There is criticism of these changes.[23] The City of London (which is not a London borough) is a separate police area and is the responsibility of the separate City of London Police.

The Ministry of Defence Police is responsible for policing of Ministry of Defence property throughout the United Kingdom, including its headquarters in Whitehall and other MoD establishments across the MPD.[24]

The British Transport Police are responsible for policing of the rail network in the United Kingdom, including London. Within London, they are also responsible for the policing of the London UndergroundTramlink, The Emirates Air Line (cable car) and the Docklands Light Railway.[25]

The English part of the Royal Parks Constabulary, which patrolled a number of Greater London’s major parks, was merged with the Metropolitan Police in 2004, and those parks are now policed by the Royal Parks Operational Command Unit.[26] There is also a small park police force, the Kew Constabulary, responsible for the Royal Botanic Gardens, whose officers have full police powers within the park. A few London borough councils maintain their own borough park constabularies, though their remit only extends to park by-laws, and although they are sworn as constables under laws applicable to parks, their powers are not equal to those of constables appointed under the Police Acts, meaning that they are not police officers.[27]

Metropolitan Police officers have legal jurisdiction throughout all of England and Wales, including areas that have their own special police forces, such as the Ministry of Defence, as do all police officers of territorial police forces.[28] Officers also have limited powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland.[29] Within the MPD, the Met will take over the investigation of any serious crime from the Ministry of Defence Police and to a lesser degree BTP, if it is deemed appropriate. Terrorist incidents and complex murder enquiries will almost always be investigated by the Met,[30][31] with the assistance of any relevant specialist force, even if they are committed on Ministry of Defence or railway property. A minor incursion into the normal jurisdiction of territorial police officers in England and Wales is that Met officers involved in the protection duties of the Royal Family and other VIPs have full police powers in Scotland and Northern Ireland in connection with those duties.[32]

Organisation and structure[edit]

[33]

The Metropolitan Police Service is organised into the following directorates:[33]

Each is overseen by an Assistant Commissioner, or in the case of administrative departments, a director of police staff, which is the equivalent civilian staff grade. The management board is made up of the Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner, Assistant Commissioners and Directors.

Ranks[edit]

The Metropolitan Police Service uses the standard British police ranks, indicated by shoulder boards, up to Chief Superintendent, but uniquely has five ranks above that level instead of the standard three; namely Commander, Deputy Assistant Commissioner, Assistant Commissioner, Deputy Commissioner and Commissioner.[34] All senior officers of the rank of Commander and above are chief police officers of NPCC (previously ACPO) rank.

The Met approved the use of name badges in October 2003, with new recruits wearing the Velcro badges from September 2004. The badge consists of the wearer’s rank, followed by their surname.[35]

Following controversy over assaults by uniformed officers with concealed shoulder identification numbers[36] during the G20 summit, Commissioner Sir Paul Stephenson said, “the public has a right to be able to identify any uniformed officer whilst performing their duty” by their shoulder identification numbers.[37]

The Met uniformed officer rank structure, with shoulder badge features, is as follows:

The Met also has several active Volunteer Police Cadet units, which maintain their own internal rank structure.[38] The Metropolitan Special Constabulary (MSC) is a contingent of part-time volunteer police officers and is attached to most Borough Operational Command Units. The MSC has its own internal rank structure.

The prefix “Woman” in front of female officers’ ranks has been obsolete since 1999. Members of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) up to and including the rank of Chief Superintendent prefix their ranks with “Detective”. Detective ranks are equivalent in rank to their uniform counterparts. Other departments, such as Special Branch and Child Protection, award non-detectives “Branch Detective” status, allowing them to use the “Detective” prefix. None of these detective ranks confer on the holder any extra pay or supervisory authority compared to their uniformed colleagues.

Resources[edit]

Two Metropolitan Police officers overseeing an event at Trafalgar Square.

Met officers supervising World Cup revellers in 2006.

Armed DPG police officers. Downing Street gates, 2014

A Met Police Public Order Vehicle (POV) used by TSG

The Metropolitan Police Service consists of regular police officers and volunteer part-time special constables (both of whom have full police powers), and employed civilian staff and police community support officers.[39] The Met was the first force to introduce PCSOs. Unlike police staff and PCSOs, police officers are not employees: they are servants of the crown. Funding for the Metropolitan police has been cut due to austerity. Changes in the way the government pays for police pensions will lead to further cuts.[40]

Police numbers[edit]

  • Regular police officers: 30,980 [41]
  • Police Community Support Officers: 1,268 [41]
  • Police staff: 9,145 [41]
  • Special Constables: 1,749 [41]
  • Designated Officers: 614* [42]
  • Dogs: around 250* [43]
  • Horses: 120* [44]

* Excluding these figures, the other workforce numbers were presented on the Metropolitan Police Service’s website as being accurate as of December 2019 (with 99 fewer PCs and 103 fewer Specials since the previous update in September 2019)

Historic numbers of police officers[edit]

  • 2019: 30,980 (excluding 1,749 Special Constables) [41]
  • 2017: 30,817 [42]
  • 2016: 32,125 [45]
  • 2015: 31,877 [45]
  • 2014: 30,932 (excluding 4,587 Special Constables)[46]
  • 2013: 30,398 (excluding 5,303 Special Constables)[47]
  • 2011: 32,380 (excluding 4,459 Special Constables)[48]
  • 2010: 33,260 (excluding 3,125 Special Constables)[49]
  • 2009: 32,543 (excluding 2,622 Special Constables)[50]
  • 2004: 31,000 (approx)[51]
  • 2003: 28,000 (approx)[51]
  • 2001: 25,000 (approx)[52]
  • 1984: 27,000 (approx)[53]
  • 1965: 18,016[54]
  • 1952: 16,400[55]
  • 1944: 17,976*[56]
  • 1938: 18,511
  • 1929: 19,290[57]
  • 1912: 20,529[58]
  • 1887: 14,191[59]
  • 1877: 10,336^[60]
  • 1866: 6,839[61]
  • 1852: 5,625[62]

*include temporary constables from war period

^includes 753 officers policing Her Majesty’s Dockyards throughout the country

Fleet[edit]

The Met operates and maintains a fleet of nearly 5,000 vehicles, covering nearly 47 million miles per year.[63] The fleet is used for a range of duties, including:[64]

  • Area Cars: used for patrol and 999 emergency response and are driven by advanced drivers.
  • Incident Response Vehicles (IRV) or Response Cars: used for patrol and 999 emergency response.

A ‘station van’ used to transport arrested suspects to a police station and doubling as an IRV, with older orange stripe marking

One of the Met’s BMW 5 Series Roads Policing Unit vehicles

  • Traffic Units : used to patrol the motorways and are pursuit authorized, enforce traffic laws and encourage road safety.
  • Protected Carriers: used for public order duties.
  • Station Vans: used to transport both officers and suspects in a cage in the rear of the van.
  • Commercial Vehicle Units: used to respond to incidents involving commercial vehicles.
  • CBRN Units: used to mitigate chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear incidents. These are identified by a large amount of equipment lockers on newer vans and a large array of detecting equipment on the top of older vans.
  • Control Units: used for incident command and control purposes.
  • Armoured Multi-role Vehicles: used for public order duties, airport duties or as required.
  • General Purpose Vehicles: used for general support and transportation duties of officers or equipment.
  • Training Vehicles: used to train police drivers under lights and sirens.
  • Miscellaneous Vehicles: such as horseboxes and trailers.

The majority of vehicles have a service life of three to five years; the Met replaces or upgrades between 800 and 1,000 vehicles each year. By 2012 the Met was marking all new marked vehicles with Battenburg markings, a highly-reflective material on the side of the vehicles, chequered blue and yellow for the police, and in other colours for other services. The old livery was an orange stripe through the vehicle, with the force’s logo.

The National Police Air Service has a base at Lippitts Hill, in Essex, which houses three helicopters to support surrounding forces, including the Met.

marine policing unit operates 22 vessels from its base in Wapping.

A BMW X5 ARV – indicted by the yellow dots around the vehicle

Budget[edit]

A Ford Focus IRV responding to emergency call

Annual expenditure for single years, not adjusted for inflation.[65]

 
Year Amount Notes
1829/30 £194,126
1848 £437,441
1873 £1.1 million
1898 £1.8 million
1923 £7.8 million
1948 £12.6 million
1973 £95 million
1998/9 £2.03 billion
2011/12 £3.69 billion £2,754m was spent on staff wages[66][67]
2017/18 £3.26 billion[68]

Crime figures[edit]

Crimes reported within the Metropolitan Police District, selected by quarter centuries.[69]

  • 1829/30: 20,000
  • 1848: 15,000
  • 1873: 20,000
  • 1898: 18,838
  • 1923: 15,383
  • 1948: 126,597
  • 1973: 355,258
  • 1998/9: 934,254
  • 2017/18: 827,225[70]

Detection rates[edit]

The following table shows the percentage detection rates for the Metropolitan Police by offence group for 2010/11.[71]

Total Violence against the person Sexual offences Robbery Burglary Offences against vehicles Other theft offences Fraud and forgery Criminal damage Drug offences Other offences
Metropolitan Police 24 35 23 17 11 5 14 16 13 91 63
England and Wales 28 44 30 21 13 11 22 24 14 94 69

The Metropolitan Police Service “screened out” 34,164 crimes the day they were reported in 2017 and did not investigate them further. This compares to 13,019 the previous year. 18,093 crimes were closed in 24 hours during the first 5 months of 2018 making it likely that the 2017 total will be exceeded. Crimes not being investigated include sexual assaults and arson, burglaries, thefts and assaults. Some critics believe this shows the effect of austerity on the force’s ability to carry out its responsibilities.[72]

Specialist units[edit]

  • Protection Command – This command is split into two branches: Royalty and Specialist Protection (RASP) and Parliamentary and Diplomatic Protection (PaDP). RaSP provides personal armed protection for the Royal familyPrime Minister and other ministers, ambassadors and visiting heads of state. PaDP is responsible for providing armed officers to protect the Palace of Westminster, important residences such as Downing Street and the many embassies found located in London. Royal Palaces are the responsibility of RaSP.[73] The Special Escort Group (SEG) are responsible for escorting the Royal Family, Prime Minister and other ministers, ambassadors and visiting heads of state, and occasionally prisoner transport. They use motorcyclists to halt traffic, and use armed cars at the rear of the escort for armed assistance and traffic control. Once the escort has passed, the roads are immediately opened, different from how the United States handle police escorts, which tend to close the road off completely. All SEG officers are armed, the motorcycle officers carrying the Glock 17, and the car officers which utilize the more effective firearms such as the G36 and MP5 semi-automatic carbines.Their motto is “We lead, others follow”.
  • Aviation Policing – Responsible for providing policing (including armed officers) at Heathrow Airport and London City Airport.[74]
  • Flying Squad – A unit which investigates and intercepts armed robberies. The name comes from the fact its members travelled across divisional and borough boundaries.
  • Trident Gang Crime Command – Investigates and works to prevent gang crime and non fatal shootings.
  • Roads and Transport Policing Command – Provides policing for the transport network in London. However, the main division, the Traffic Division, patrols the roads, capable of securing Road Traffic Collisions (RTC), pursuing fleeing suspects and enforcing speed, safety, and drink driving.[75]
  • Specialist Firearms Command – (SCO19) Responsible for providing armed response and support across the whole of London with 3 Authorised Firearms Officers (AFO) travelling in ARVs (Armed Response Vehicles) responding to calls involving firearms and weapons, which may put unarmed officers at risk. SCO19 has a smaller number of CTSFOs (Counter Terrorist Specialist Firearms Officers), who have a higher level of training.[76]
  • Dog Support Unit – (DSU) Provides highly trained dogs and police handlers. They are trained to detect drugs and firearms, respond to searches, missing people, and fleeing suspects. There is also a division which has bomb-detection dogs.[77]
  • Marine Policing Unit – (MPU) Provides policing on the waterways of London, responding to situations in the River Thames and tracking and stopping illegal vessels entering and exiting London.[78]
  • Mounted Branch – Provides policing on horseback in London. One of their duties is escorting the Royal Guard down The Mall, into and out of Buckingham Palace every morning from April to July, then occasionally through the remainder of the year. They also provide public order support and are commonly called to police football matches in the event of any unrest. All officers are trained in public order tactics on horseback.[79]
  • Territorial Support Group – (TSG) Highly trained officers, specialised in public order and large scale riots responding around London in marked Public Order Vehicles (POV) with 6 constables and a sergeant in each POV. They aim to: secure the capital against terrorism, respond to any disorder in London, and reduce priority crime through borough support. They respond in highly-protective uniform during riots or large disorder, protecting themselves from any thrown objects or hazards.[80]

Stations[edit]

In addition to the headquarters at New Scotland Yard, there are many police stations in London.[81] These range from large borough headquarters staffed around the clock every day to smaller stations, which may be open to the public only during normal business hours, or on certain days of the week. In 2017, there were 73 working front counters open to the public in London.[82]

A traditional blue lamp as seen outside most police stations. This one is outside Charing Cross police station.

Most police stations can easily be identified from one or more blue lamps located outside the entrance, which were introduced in 1861.

The oldest Metropolitan police station, which opened in Bow Street in 1881, closed in 1992 and the adjoining Bow Street Magistrates’ Court heard its last case on 14 July 2006.[83] The oldest operational police station in London is in Wapping, which opened in 1908. It is the headquarters of the marine policing unit (formerly known as Thames Division), which is responsible for policing the River Thames. It also houses a mortuary and the River Police Museum.

Paddington Green Police Station, which is no longer operational, received much publicity for its housing of terrorism suspects in an underground complex prior to its closure in 2017.

The marine policing unit is based at Wapping.

In 2004, there was a call from the Institute for Public Policy Research for more imaginative planning of police stations to aid in improving relations between police forces and the wider community.[84]

Officers killed in the line of duty[edit]

The sculpture on the grave of Constable William Frederick Tyler, Abney Park Cemetery, London

The Police Memorial Trust lists and commemorates all British police officers killed in the line of duty, and since its establishment in 1984 has erected dozens of memorials to some of those officers.

See also[edit]

Other London emergency services:

Uncategorized

Central Equipment Identity Register

Central Equipment Identity Register

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Central Equipment Identity Register is a database of the IMEI numbers of blacklisted handsets. If a device’s ESN or IMEI number is listed on a CEIR, it is not supposed to work on member service providers’ networks; only paying members may access the database.[1]

There are a number of features which are added to the CEIR like providing statistics on the number of handset types. Growth/decline per network can be reported on a daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly base. Also we can see MSISDN, IMSI used by the IMEI and search for which all IMEI was used with IMSI.

A common usage of a CEIR is with stolen mobile devices. Once a user reports to their operator about the theft, the mobile devices’s IMEI number should be entered into the CEIR, supposedly making the device unusable in any network (although this does not always work). A key reason this sometimes does not work, is that while many operators from many countries contribute IMEIs to the CEIR, each also having a unique profile that determines which operators’ blocks will be included on the CEIR updates received by each operator. The UK networks for example, do not receive those block records originated by non-UK networks. Annual fees are required for access to the CEIR, and access is tightly regulated[1] Contributing operators decide for themselves which handsets they will block from their own networks,[2] and many network operators simply do not participate at all. Blocking users, means losing revenue. For operators it is often a trade off between business ethics and revenue. If one other operator in a country does not block the use of stolen handsets, revenue flows to that operator instead of the other, more ethical ones.

Currently, the Central Equipment Identity Register is more frequently called an IMEI DB (database) system which means that it is a central system for network operators (those that have an EIR) to share their individual blacklists with one another so that service is denied for the particular devices that appear on that blacklist. The idea is for network operators to compile one global blacklist through the IMEI DB. However, there is no agreement on a single CEIR.

EIR[edit]

An equipment identity register reduces the threats of theft of mobile devices by enabling individual operators to prevent the use of stolen mobile devices on their own networks. This improves users’ security by switching off stolen mobile devices, making them useless (bricked) for mobile devices thieves and thus less likely to be stolen in the first place. As the number of mobile devices and messaging users continue to grow, they become a target for fraudulent and criminal activities. Mobile Messaging application and infrastructure companies such as BroadForward, NokiaMavenir, Comviva Primal Technologies, Svyazcom and Tekelec are examples of providers for Equipment Identity for worldwide mobile operators like Vodafone (Airwide), MTS (Svyazcom), 4GTSS and Cegetel (Tekelec) that deploy the lists for the CEIRs.

There is a TRA mandatory rule to use CEIR in the operator network to prevent the handset theft and cloning of dual SIM cards.

See also[edit]

Uncategorized

Chuck Schumer

Chuck Schumer

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Chuck Schumer
Chuck Schumer official photo.jpg
Senate Minority Leader
Assumed office
January 3, 2017
Deputy Dick Durbin
Preceded by Harry Reid
Chair of the Senate Democratic Caucus
Assumed office
January 3, 2017
Deputy Mark Warner
Elizabeth Warren
Preceded by Harry Reid
United States Senator
from New York
Assumed office
January 3, 1999
Serving with Kirsten Gillibrand
Preceded by Al D’Amato
Chair of the
Senate Democratic Policy Committee
In office
January 3, 2011 – January 3, 2017
Leader Harry Reid
Preceded by Byron Dorgan
Succeeded by Debbie Stabenow
Vice Chair of the
Senate Democratic Caucus
In office
January 3, 2007 – January 3, 2017
Leader Harry Reid
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Mark Warner
Elizabeth Warren
Chair of the Senate Rules Committee
In office
January 3, 2009 – January 3, 2015
Preceded by Dianne Feinstein
Succeeded by Roy Blunt
Chair of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee
In office
January 3, 2005 – January 3, 2009
Leader Harry Reid
Preceded by Jon Corzine
Succeeded by Robert Menendez
Member of the
U.S. House of Representatives
from New York
In office
January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1999
Preceded by Elizabeth Holtzman
Succeeded by Anthony Weiner
Constituency 16th district (1981–83)
10th district (1983–93)
9th district (1993–99)
Member of the New York State Assembly
from the 45th district
In office
January 1, 1975 – December 31, 1980
Preceded by Stephen Solarz
Succeeded by Daniel L. Feldman
Personal details
Born
Charles Ellis Schumer

November 23, 1950 (age 69)
New York CityNew York, U.S.

Political party Democratic
Spouse(s)
Iris Weinshall (m. 1980)
Children 2
Relatives Amy Schumer (cousin)
Education Harvard University (ABJD)
Signature
Website Senate website

Charles Ellis Schumer (/ˈʃmər/; born November 23, 1950) is an American politician serving as the senior United States senator from New York, a seat to which he was first elected in 1998. A member of the Democratic Party, he has also served as the Senate minority leader since 2017. He first defeated three-term Republican incumbent Al D’Amato before being reelected in 2004 with 71 percent of the vote, in 2010 with 66 percent of the vote, and in 2016 with 70 percent of the vote. He is the current dean of New York’s congressional delegation.

Before his election to the Senate, Schumer served in the House of Representatives from 1981 to 1999, first representing New York’s 16th congressional district before being redistricted to the 10th congressional district in 1983 and 9th congressional district ten years later. A native of Brooklyn and a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Law School, he was a three-term member of the New York State Assembly from 1975 to 1980.

Schumer was chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee from 2005 to 2009, during which time he oversaw 14 Democratic gains in the Senate in the 2006 and 2008 elections. He was the third-ranking Democrat in the Senate, behind Senate Minority Leader Harry Reid and Minority Whip Dick Durbin. He was elected Vice Chairman of the Democratic Caucus in the Senate in 2006.[1] In November 2010, he was also chosen to hold the additional role of chairman of the Senate Democratic Policy Committee.[2] Schumer won his fourth term in the Senate in 2016 and was then unanimously elected Minority Leader to succeed Harry Reid, who was retiring.[3][4]

Family and early life

Schumer was born in Brooklyn, the son of Selma (née Rosen) and Abraham Schumer.[5] His father ran an exterminating business, and his mother was a homemaker.[6][7] He and his family are Jewish,[8] and he is a second cousin, once removed, of actress Amy Schumer.[9][10][11] His ancestors originated from the town of ChortkivGalicia, in what is now western Ukraine.[12]

He attended public schools in Brooklyn, scoring a super-scored 1600 on the SAT, and graduated as class valedictorian from James Madison High School, in 1967. Schumer competed for Madison High on the It’s Academic television quiz show.[13] He attended Harvard College, where he became interested in politics and campaigned for Eugene McCarthy, in 1968.[14] After completing his undergraduate degree, he continued to Harvard Law School, earning his Juris Doctor with honors, in 1974. Schumer passed the New York state bar in early 1975. However, he never practiced law, choosing instead a career in politics.[15]

State assembly and congressional tenure

Schumer’s official congressional portrait, 1987

In 1974, Schumer ran for and was elected to the New York State Assembly, filling a seat previously held by Schumer’s mentor Stephen Solarz.[16] Schumer served three terms, from 1975 to 1981, sitting in the 181st182nd and 183rd New York State Legislatures.[17][18][19][16] He has never lost an election.

In 1980, 16th District congresswoman Elizabeth Holtzman won the Democratic nomination for the Senate seat of Republican Jacob Javits. Schumer ran for Holtzman’s vacated House seat and won.[16]

He was re-elected eight times from the Brooklyn and Queens-based district, which changed numbers twice in his tenure (it was numbered the 16th from 1981 to 1983, the 10th from 1983 to 1993 and the 9th from 1993). In 1982, as a result of redistricting, Schumer faced a potential matchup with veteran Brooklyn congressman Steve Solarz, although the matchup did not actually materialize.[16][20] In preparation, Schumer “set about making friends on Wall Street, tapping the city’s top law firms and securities houses for campaign donations. ‘I told them I looked like I had a very difficult reapportionment fight. If I were to stand a chance of being re-elected, I needed some help,’ he would later tell the Associated Press.”[20]

As a member of the House Judiciary Committee, Schumer was one of four congressional members who oversaw the House investigation (leading the Democratic defense of the Clinton administration),[21] of the Waco siege hearings in 1995.[22]

United States senator

Schumer’s Senate portrait

In 1998, Schumer ran for the Senate. He won the Democratic Senate primary with 51 percent of the votes against Geraldine Ferraro (21 percent) and Mark Green (19 percent). He received 54 percent of the vote in the general election,[23] defeating three-term incumbent Republican Al D’Amato (44 percent).

In November 2001, Schumer announced hearings on the decision of President George W. Bush to try terrorists in military tribunals amid Washington concerns that Bush would skip the American legal system in regards to his handling of such cases. Schumer said the two goals of the hearings were to ascertain if Bush had the power to form a tribunal apart from an attempt at interacting with Congress, and if a military tribunal was the most efficient instrument to ensure a trial that would not only protect national security information but also guarantee fairness for the suspect.[24]

In March 2002, as the Senate worked on a compromise to save an election reform bill that stalled due to Republicans’ believing it was not combative enough against voter fraud, Schumer and Ron Wyden led a successful effort in protecting an amendment allowing first-time voters to be verified with only a signature.[25]

In April 2002, during a Senate speech, Schumer referred to the Middle East policy of the Bush administration as “muddled, confused and inconsistent” and said the planned meeting between Secretary of State Colin Powell and Yasser Arafat would be against the president’s stated stand against terrorists and those harboring them.[26]

In 2002, Schumer authored a provision to an industry-sponsored bill intended to harden the ease by which individuals erase their debts through bankruptcy filing. The measure had opposition from anti-abortion activists who charged it with restricting their ability to use the bankruptcy courts to write off court fines. After the bill appeared to die in May, J. Dennis Hastert spokesman John Feehery opined, “Schumer really was pretty obnoxious about how this provision was going to hurt people who were pro-life and that really got some of our folks ginned up.” In response, Schumer said the provision was a compromise with Henry J. Hyde and other colleagues and that it was met by opposition from people who did not properly read the law.[27]

In January 2004, after President Bush renominated Charles Pickering for federal appeals court along with 30 other nominees who had failed to win confirmation under the previous Democratic-controlled Senate, Schumer stated his intent to prevent Pickering’s confirmation and said the US could do better.[28]

In March 2004, along with Jon CorzineTed Kennedy, and Frank Lautenberg, Schumer signed a letter to President Bush urging him to instruct staff to avoid taking action against whistleblower Richard Foster after Foster spoke out on the subject of White House efforts intended to keep Congress unaware of alternative higher cost estimates for the new Medicare prescription drug program.[29]

In August 2004, after American officials leaked the arrest of Muhammad Naeem Noor Khan to reporters, Schumer stated that he was troubled by the decision to reveal Khan’s identity, citing the fact that the public had learned little of Khan’s role in providing the information that led Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge to announce a higher terror alert level.[30]

In 2004, Schumer won re-election against Republican assemblyman Howard Mills of Middletown and conservative Marilyn F. O’Grady. Many New York Republicans were dismayed by the selection of Mills over the conservative Michael Benjamin, who held significant advantages over Mills in both fundraising and organization.[31] Benjamin publicly accused GOP chairman Sandy Treadwell and governor George Pataki of trying to muscle him out of the Senate race and undermine the democratic process.[31] Schumer defeated Mills, the second-place finisher, by 2.8 million votes and won reelection with 71 percent of the vote.[32] Schumer won every county in the state except one, Hamilton County, in the Adirondacks, the least populated and most Republican county in the state.[32] Mills conceded defeat minutes after the polls closed, before returns had come in.[32]

In March 2006, the House Appropriations Committee voted to block an amendment allowing Dubai Ports World to operate some terminals at U.S. ports…an amendment that was inserted into the emergency supplemental funding bill for military actions in Iraq and Afghanistan. The same day, Schumer introduced an amendment barring companies from operating in a U.S. port if the company was owned by a country that recognized the Taliban’s regime in Afghanistan, the amendment being touted as similar to the House measure. Senate majority leader Bill Frist subsequently asked for a quorum call that effectively gnarled proceedings, Schumer afterward opining that the Democrats had “bent over backwards to try and accommodate the Republican schedule” and this meant Republicans did not want a vote at all.[33]

In July 2006, Prime Minister of Iraq Nouri al-Maliki stated that Iraq was urging the international community “to take a quick and firm stance to stop this aggression against Lebanon, to stop the killing of innocent people and to stop the destruction of infrastructure.” In response, Schumer, Harry Reid, and Dick Durbin signed a letter to al-Maliki in which they charged him with failing to condemn the aggression of Hezbollah as well as Israel’s right to defend itself, arguing the oversight raised serious concern over whether Iraq under his reign could “play a constructive role in resolving the current crisis and bringing stability to the Middle East.”[34]

SurveyUSA poll from April 2009 placed Schumer’s approval rating at 62 percent, with 31 percent disapproving.[35]

Notable former aides to Schumer include former U.S. congressman Anthony Weiner; former New York state senator Daniel Squadron and New York state assembly members Phil Goldfeder and Victor M. Pichardo.[36][37]

In October 2013, Schumer announced his support for a proposal ending restrictions on shipping beer, wine, and spirits through the United States Postal Service, saying it would “help keep local post offices open by bringing in an estimated $225 million in new revenues to the USPS” in addition to broadening the availability of beers and wines to consumers.[38]

After the 2016 presidential election, Schumer opined that the Democratic Party lost due to not having “a strong, bold economic message” and called for the Democrats to push for reforms in the affordability of college and trade laws.[39]

In December 2016, Schumer called for Trump cabinet nominees to turn in their tax returns and in doing so follow the precedent set by Steve Mnuchin and Tom Price.[40]

In 2017, Schumer wrote to President Trump advocating for a block on China that would prevent the latter country from purchasing more American companies to increase pressure on Beijing to help rein in the nuclear missile program of North Korea.[41] In May 2018, after President Trump signaled his willingness to ease sanctions on ZTE in a bid for a trade deal with Beijing, Schumer observed, “This seems to be an area where Democrats and Republicans in the House and the Senate are coming together and telling the president, you’ve got to be tough on China, you have to have your actions match your rhetoric.”[42]

In November 2017, Schumer and Gilibrand announced $1,908,486 in funding for Head Start and Early Head Start programs at the Community Action Organization of Erie County, Schumer saying the federal funding would yield “real results to young students in Western New York by providing them with the resources they need to succeed both in and out of the classroom.”[43]

In January 2018, Schumer requested the United States Department of Veteran Affairs complete final acquisitions for two 60-acre and 77-acre parcels in Pembroke, New York, and then initiate construction of the New Western New York National Veterans Cemetery, saying the completion of the cemetery would ensure “Western New York’s military veterans will have the proper burial, at a site close to the homes, families, and the very communities they dedicated their lives to defend and serve.”[44]

In March 2018, Schumer said the bipartisan legislation sponsored by Bob Casey and Pat Toomey would assist the children of deceased first respondents afford college by increasing the availability of Pell grant funding.[45]

In August 2018, Schumer announced the Senate passed 1 million in FY2019 funding for the national firefighter cancer registry as an amendment to the upcoming FY2019 Health and Human Services (HHS) minibus appropriations bill. Schumer said firefighters needed “first-rate medical care and treatment” for the work they did and the registry would help “researchers track, treat, and eventually prevent firefighters being stricken by cancer.”[46] After the death of Arizona Republican John McCain that month, Schumer announced in a statement that he would be introducing legislation to rename the Russell Senate Office Building after McCain.[47]

Political style

Schumer and Hillary Clinton at Erie Canal Harbor opening ceremony

Schumer and President Barack Obama in October 2013

Schumer’s propensity for publicity is the subject of a running joke among many commentators. He has been described as an “incorrigible publicity hound”.[48] Bob Dole once quipped that “the most dangerous place in Washington is between Charles Schumer and a television camera”,[49] while Barack Obama joked that Schumer brought along the press to a banquet as his “loved ones”.[50][51][52][53] Schumer frequently schedules media appearances on Sundays on both legislative and non-legislative matters. His use of media has been cited by some as a successful way to raise a politician’s profile nationally and among his constituents.[54] Schumer has appeared as a guest on The Daily Show seven times.[55]

In Washington, he has been a lead consensus-builder on the difficult issues of health care, immigration, and financial regulation.[56]

In his role as chairman of the Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies for the Second inauguration of Barack Obama, Schumer played a key role in organizing the event, gave the opening speech and served as the master of ceremonies.[57] A photograph of a smiling Schumer peering from behind Malia Obama as Barack Obama took the oath of office went viral and became a meme.[58] Although it was described as a “photobomb“,[59] it was not technically one as he was standing in the correct place.[60][61] The Huffington Post quipped that, “clearly, inauguration day belonged to Chuck Schumer.”[62]

Local issues

Schumer at the Binghamton St. Patrick’s Day Parade on March 5, 2016

Schumer attended an anti-Trump march in New York City on January 21, 2017

Schumer prides himself on visiting every one of New York’s 62 counties each year and has successfully done so in each of the 16 years he has served in the United States Senate, the only New York senator to have done so.[63] He has a reputation for focusing on local issues that are important to average New Yorkers not normally associated with United States senators, ranging from tourism, to local taxes, to job creation.[64][65][66][67] When it was revealed that Adidas planned to end its contract for the manufacture of NBA jerseys with American Classic Outfitters, an upstate New York apparel company, and outsource production overseas, Schumer blasted the company, citing the risk to 100 workers at the plant.[68]

When it was revealed that Canon Inc. was considering relocating from its corporate headquarters in Long Island because of a dispute over road infrastructure funding, Schumer stepped in to advocate New York state redirect federal stimulus dollars to make the road improvements and keep the company and its jobs on Long Island.[69] Along with his House and Senate colleagues, Schumer successfully worked to kill a Bush-era privatization plan for custodial and utility workers at the United States Military Academy at West Point. The plan would have called for turning over custodial and utility work to a Georgia company.[70]

Drugs

In May 2001, Schumer and Republican John McCain introduced legislation intended to make it more difficult for makers of brand-name drugs to keep cheaper generic drugs off the market.[71] The legislation was supported by a coalition of consumer groups and Schumer told reporters that the legislation’s enactment would reduce prescription drug costs by over 60 percent per prescription in addition to saving consumers $71 billion over the following decade.[72]

In October 2001, during a press conference, Schumer stated his desire for generic ciprofloxacin to be available for government use. At that time Bayer was holding exclusive patent rights for its commercial product Cipro. Schumer also said he believed the federal government had the authority to order the immediate production of generic ciproflaxin to expand the government stockpile of the drug.[73]

In July 2002, the Senate passed a bill sponsored by Schumer and McCain that could lower the costs of generic drugs more rapidly available to U.S. consumers and thereby lead to savings of billions of dollars in drug costs. The legislation also attempted to prevent frivolous lawsuits filed by brand-name drug manufacturers claiming generic drugs are infringing their patients.[74]

FBI

In November 2001, Schumer joined fellow New York senator Hillary Clinton to call for legislation encouraging the Federal Bureau of Investigation to share information on terrorism with local and state police by removing legal barriers to such cooperation, citing reports by New York mayor Rudy Giuliani that federal authorities did not tell city police what they were aware of. Schumer joined Patrick Leahy to report that the Justice Department supported the legislation.[75]

In October 2016, after FBI director James Comey announced the reopening of an investigation into whether Hillary Clinton, then the Democratic presidential nominee, mishandled classified emails during her tenure at the State Department, Schumer said that he had lost confidence in Comey.[76] In May 2017, after President Trump fired Comey, Schumer told reporters that they were aware the FBI had been investigating whether the Trump campaign had colluded with Russia and pondered whether the investigation was “getting too close to home for the president”.[77] In a Senate floor speech, Schumer called for a “impartial and independent” investigation into Russian interference in the 2016 Presidential election and that the Democrats had agreed to the priorities of Deputy Attorney Rod Rosenstein not being able to appoint a special prosecutor for an investigation into Russia’s meddling, the need for Comey to meet with the Senate, and Rosenstein and Attorney General Jeff Sessions meeting separately with senators.[78]

In January 2018, Schumer said since the Mueller investigation began, the United States “has had to endure conspiracy after conspiracy from the right wing, Republican congressmen, senators and of course the right-wing press, which acts in total cahoots” in regards to their views on the FBI and that Republican attempts to discredit Mueller “has now devolved into delusional, self-serving paranoia.”[79] In May, after the White House invited two Republicans and no Democrats to a briefing by Department of Justice officials on an FBI informant that made contact with the Trump campaign,[80] Schumer and House Minority Leader Nancy Pelosi sent a letter to Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein and FBI director Wray calling for “a bipartisan Gang of Eight briefing that involves congressional leadership from both chambers.”[81]

Supreme Court

In September 2005, following the nomination of John Roberts by President George W. Bush, Schumer outlined the positives of Roberts as his brilliance, his being “a lawyer above all”, and “judicial philosophy and modesty and stability” during the confirmation hearings for Roberts by the Senate Judiciary Committee. Schumer said Roberts had negatives on “the question of compassion and humanity”, the Bush administration declining to show documents written by Roberts during his tenure as deputy solicitor general, and Roberts declining to answer many questions posed to him by the committee.[82] In June 2018, Schumer stated that Roberts was demeaning the Supreme Court as it was becoming more political, citing the court ruling in favor of anti-abortion clinics in California. Schumer said the court had “affirmed a plainly discriminatory travel ban, unleashed a flood of dark unlimited money in our politics and has scrapped a key pillar of the Voting Rights Act” and thereby aligned itself with goals of what he called “the hard right”.[83]

In October 2005, Schumer stated that Bush Supreme Court nominee Harriet Miers “would not get a majority either in the Judiciary Committee or the floor” and that her confirmation hearings would cause her to gather either support or opposition in a way that had not been seen by another other prior nominee in recent memory.[84]

In May 2009, he told reporters that the confirmation process for Obama Supreme Court nominee Sonia Sotomayor would be “more of a test of the Republican Party than it is of Judge Sotomayor”, citing Sotomayor as a “mainstream justice” that Republicans had no reason to oppose.[85]

In March 2016, after Obama nominated Merrick Garland to replace the deceased Antonin Scalia, Schumer called for Mitch McConnell and Chuck Grassley to hold hearings “so America can make its own judgment as to whether Merrick Garland belongs on the court.”[86] In July 2018, it was reported that Schumer had advocated for President Trump to nominate Garland during a phone conversation as a way of attracting bipartisan support, as opposed to Trump’s nominating a person opposed to the Affordable Care Act and Roe v. Wade who would be more controversial.[87] In November, after the 2016 elections, Schumer said the Democrats were “going to go at” President-elect Trump if he did not nominate Supreme Court candidates who were mainstream and that the Republicans did not have “clean hands” for having blocked the Garland nomination for months.[88]

In March 2017, at the end of Senate hearings for Trump Supreme Court nominee Neil Gorsuch, Schumer stated he would vote against the nomination and called for Democrats to join him in waging a block of an up-or-down vote on Gorsuch. In his floor speech, Schumer said, “If this nominee cannot earn 60 votes — a bar met by each of President Obama’s nominees and George Bush’s last two nominees — the answer isn’t to change the rules. It’s to change the nominee.”[89] Though the Democrats conducted the filibuster, it was broken by Republicans using the “nuclear option“, and Gorsuch was confirmed the following day.[90]

In July 2018, after President Trump nominated Brett Kavanaugh to replace the retiring Anthony Kennedy, Schumer said Kavanaugh should be asked direct questions about the precedent set by Roe v. Wade and other cases. Schumer noted Kavanaugh’s expressed opinion on the possible incorrect decision in United States v. Nixon and that this could mean he would not hold President Trump accountable after being confirmed.[91]

On August 21, Schumer stated that he was requesting documents from Kavanaugh’s White House tenure be shared with the Senate, arguing that “withholding documents from the Senate and the American people under the bogus label of committee confidential is a dark development for the Senate.”[92] After meeting with Kavanaugh, Schumer stated that he had asked him if he believed Roe v. Wade and Casey v. Planned Parenthood were properly decided and that the nominee had not responded and the lack of an answer “should send shivers down the spine of any American who believes in reproductive freedom for women.” He furthered that Kavanaugh had a special obligation to make his views clear due to his unique position as the only person nominated by a president for the Supreme Court after the president said “I will only nominate someone who overturns Roe v Wade.”[93] Schumer subsequently called for the Senate Judiciary Committee to delay Kavanaugh’s confirmation hearing after former Trump lawyer Michael Cohen plead guilty to charges of bank fraud, tax fraud and campaign finance law violations, calling the plea “a game changer”.[94]

At a pro-choice rally outside the Supreme Court in March 2020, Schumer stated “I want to tell you Gorsuch, I want to tell you Kavanaugh, you have released the whirlwind and you will pay the price. You won’t know what hit you if you go forward with these awful decisions”. Chief Justice John Roberts subsequently issued a statement describing Schumer’s comments as “threatening”, “inappropriate” and “dangerous”.[95] Senator Josh Hawley also moved a motion calling for Schumer to be censured.[96]

Net neutrality

In November 2017, Schumer said, “Just as our free highway system helped build jobs in America in the 20th century, Net Neutrality will help build jobs in the 21st century. To take a step back hurts our economy, our job growth and middle-class and working people. It is a disaster.”[97] In December, after the FCC voted to repeal net neutrality rules, Schumer stated the internet could start resembling “a toll road, with the highest bidders cruising along private ‘fast lanes’ while the rest of us inch along a single, traffic-choked public lane; and we could be forced to purchase internet packages much like cable packages, paying more for popular sites” and the resolution he was introducing would undo the effects of the vote.[98]

In January 2018, Schumer announced that all 49 members of the Democratic caucus supported a resolution overturning the FCC vote on net neutrality and said congressional Republicans “have the opportunity to right the administration’s wrong and show the American people whose side they’re on: Big ISPs and major corporations or consumers, entrepreneurs, and small business owners.”[99] In May, the Senate adopted a measure to revive Obama-era internet regulations enforcing equal treatment for all web traffic, Schumer describing the vote as “our best chance to make sure the internet stays accessible and affordable to all Americans.”[100] In June, in response to the Republican-controlled House not taking up the Senate resolution restoring net neutrality rules, Schumer said “House Republican leaders gave a green light to the big ISPs to charge middle-class Americans, small business owners, schools, rural Americans, and communities of color more to use the internet.”[101]

Committee assignments

Schumer serves on the following Senate committees in the 115th United States Congress:[102]

Caucus memberships

Political positions

Abortion

Schumer is pro-choice, and has been given a 100% rating by NARAL Pro-Choice America,[105] though he received some criticism for attending a gala in 2007 hosted by Efrat— an organization that seeks to reduce abortion among Israeli Jews.[106] After Supreme Court justice Anthony Kennedy retired in 2018, Schumer voiced concern about President Trump’s choice of replacement, believing that they would try to overturn Roe v. Wade.[107]

Agriculture

In March 2019, Schumer was one of thirty-eight senators to sign a letter to United States Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue warning that dairy farmers “have continued to face market instability and are struggling to survive the fourth year of sustained low prices” and urging his department to “strongly encourage these farmers to consider the Dairy Margin Coverage program.”[108]

Clinton impeachment

Schumer voted on the impeachment charges of President Bill Clinton in both houses of Congress. Schumer was a member of the House of Representatives (and Judiciary Committee member) during a December 1998 lame-duck session of Congress, voting “no” on all counts in committee and on the floor of the House. In January 1999, Schumer, as a newly elected member of the Senate, also voted “not guilty” on the two impeachment charges.[109]

Consumer issues

Schumer has given legislative attention to consumer issues. Schumer passed legislation that required uniform disclosure information on the back of credit card applications, notifying prospective cardholders of annual fees and interest rates. This standardized information is now referred to as the “Schumer box“. The senator has also aggressively pushed to end the practice whereby customers can be charged two ATM fees, once by their own bank and once by the bank who owns the ATM, if the ATM is outside their personal bank’s network.[110]

With Congresswoman Nita Lowey, Schumer has been working to ban the chemical bisphenol A, or BPA, often found in baby bottles and plastic children’s food containers.[111] The Canadian government has already banned the chemical in baby bottles and children’s products.[112] Schumer is also seeking a ban on the use of cadmium, a carcinogen known to impair brain development in children, in toys and children’s jewelry.[113] When companies began selling gloves, pills, inhalers, diuretics, shampoos and other products during the Swine Flu scare, Schumer urged the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to open an investigation. In the end, the FTC put ten companies on notice and identified a total of 140 scams.[114]

Schumer has been a champion of college tuition tax credits, calling for and passing a $4,000 tuition tax credit for students as part of a host of tax credits and cuts passed to stimulate the economy in the 2009 American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA).[115]

He received an “A” on the most recent (2008) Drum Major Institute‘s Congressional Scorecard on middle-class issues.[116]

Death penalty

In 2013, Schumer said the death penalty would be “appropriate” in the case of the Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the perpetrator of the Boston Marathon bombing. “The federal law allows the death penalty,” “I wrote the law in 1994 when I was head of the crime subcommittee in the House. This is just the kind of case that it should be applied to”.

“Given the facts that I’ve seen, it would be appropriate to use the death penalty in this case,” he said.[117][118]

Disaster Relief

In 2014, Schumer was recognized for helping to achieve the award of $700,000 in compensation monies from the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) for Gowanda, New York as a result of the devastating flood that occurred there in 2009.[119][120] In 2009, a flash flood devastated the village, causing two deaths. Four feet of flood waters swept through the village, and caused much damage.[119][120] The village was declared both a state and federal disaster site.[119][120]

Of the anticipated disbursement of FEMA monies to Gowanda, New York, due to the 2009 flood damage experienced there, Schumer is quoted, stating in the January 31, 2014 edition of Jamestown’s The Post-Journal:

FEMA and the state were sitting on Gowanda’s money for way too long. It’s about time that they made the village of Gowanda whole for the damage done in this flood. I’ve been advocating for this for months and months and months; I’m glad everyone came together and finally did the right thing.[119][120]

Donald Trump

Schumer attended the Congressional leadership meeting with Trump in the White House Situation Room on January 2, 2019

In a November 2016 interview conducted in the weeks following Trump’s victory, Schumer said that he and the president-elect were not friends and had “civil conversations a couple of times” when Trump had contacted him. Trump had said earlier that year that he believed he would get along with Schumer and that he was “close to Schumer in many ways.”[121]

In February 2017, ahead of Trump’s speech to a joint session of Congress, Schumer predicted that the speech would be less memorable than ones delivered by Trump’s predecessors due to what he called “a yawning gap between what he says and what his administration actually does for working Americans.” Though acknowledging Trump’s populist campaigning style, Schumer said Trump “governs like a pro-corporate, pro-elite, hard-right ideologue.”[122]

In March 2017, Schumer released a statement calling for Trump to apologize for claiming the Obama administration had wiretapped him during his presidential campaign. He advocated for Trump to stop tweeting to better focus on working on behalf of the United States and said Trump had “severely damaged his credibility” through promoting conspiracy theories.[123]

In June 2018, Schumer delivered a Senate floor speech decrying a call by Congresswoman Maxine Waters to harass members of the Trump administration as protest of the administration’s policies: “I strongly disagree with those who advocate harassing folks if they don’t agree with you. If you disagree with a politician, organize your fellow citizens to action and vote them out of office. But no one should call for the harassment of political opponents. That’s not right. That’s not American.”[124]

In August 2018, in response to President Trump’s charge that American Jews who vote for Democrats are “disloyal,” Schumer tweeted, “When he [Trump] uses a trope that’s been used against the Jewish people for centuries with dire consequences, he is encouraging — wittingly or unwittingly — anti-Semites throughout the country and world.”[125]

Equal pay

In April 2014, the United States Senate debated the Paycheck Fairness Act (S. 2199; 113th Congress), a bill aimed at attempted at addressing the gender pay gap in the United States.”[126] Republicans argued that the Democrats were attempting to use the votes on this bill and the issue of equal pay as political issues in the 2014 midterm elections.[126] Senator Charles Schumer (D-NY), who backed the measure, told reporters that “pay equity, that’s women, that’s 53 percent of the vote.”[126]

Financial industry regulation

In 1987, then-congressman Schumer wrote a New York Times op-ed opposing the repeal of the Glass–Steagall Act of 1933, which was entitled “Don’t Let Banks Become Casinos.[127] In 1999, Schumer commented in support of Congress’s repeal of the Glass–Steagall Act of 1933: “There are many reasons for this bill, but first and foremost is to ensure that U.S. financial firms remain competitive.”[128]

Since 2010, the securities and investment industry has been the largest donor to Schumer’s senatorial campaigns.[129]

On December 14, 2008, an article in The New York Times on Schumer’s role in the Wall Street meltdown stated that he embraced the industry’s free-market, deregulatory agenda more than any other Democrat in Congress, backing measures blamed for contributing to the financial crisis. A review of his record showed that he took steps to protect the industry from government oversight and tougher rules. Over the years, he helped save financial institutions billions of dollars in higher taxes or fees. The article charged that Schumer succeeded in limiting efforts to reform and regulate credit-rating agencies reforms proposed by the George W. Bush Administration and the Cox SEC.[130]

The Charles Schumer-Rob Portman Senate bill of 2015[131] plans to tax the $2.2 trillion multinational corporations are holding outside the country in tax-haven subsidiaries, on which 35 percent is already owed, as a one-time tax “at a rate significantly lower than the statutory corporate rate”.[132]

In his book released in March 2010, No One Would ListenMadoff whistleblower Harry Markopolos passed along an unsourced claim that Schumer called the SEC for information about the Madoff investigation.[citation needed]

Foreign policy

Schumer was a supporter of the Iraq War Resolution, and a strident pro-Israel member of Congress, although he was very critical of President George W. Bush‘s strategy in the Iraq War; he suggested that a commission of ex-generals be appointed to review it.[133] In October 2002, he voted for the war.[134] Nat Hentoff of the Village Voice, however, wrote in November 2006 that “the loquacious Schumer has been indifferent to the administration’s war on the Constitution and on our laws and treaties”, particularly on the issue of torture.[135]

The senator also is involved with legislation to address the Darfur genocide. In 2009, he co-sponsored two bills calling for peace in Darfur. Both bills, S.455 and S.684, passed in the Senate. He also voted in favor of measures to help increase the efficiency of peace keepers serving in Darfur.

Schumer, along with Republican senator Lindsey Graham of South Carolina, has been highly critical of the trade imbalance between the United States and China, and its alleged cause of Chinese currency intervention.[136] They have asked the White House, under both the Bush and Obama administrations, to find China “guilty of currency manipulation” under a 1988 law. Schumer and Graham have introduced legislation in three successive Congresses to apply tariffs onto Chinese goods for the purpose of raising the value of the Chinese yuan.

In 2009, Schumer criticized Scotland’s release of convicted Pan Am Flight 103 bomber Abdelbaset al-Megrahi, and called for the United States to impose economic sanctions on the United Kingdom if Megrahi’s release was tied to a massive oil deal between the United Kingdom and Libya.[137]

In April 2017, after the Shayrat missile strike, Schumer said a “pinpointed, limited action to punish and hopefully deter Assad from doing this again is appropriate” while warning against the United States becoming further involved in Syria.[138]

In July 2017, Schumer voted in favor of the Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act that grouped together sanctions against IranRussia and North Korea.[139]

Schumer became the first senator to call for U.S. support for Kurdish independence following the results of the 2017 Kurdistan Region independence referendum, releasing a resolution calling for the U.S. government to change its policy to “support a political process that addresses the aspirations of the Kurds for an independent state”. He called upon Iraq to “engage in a dialogue and peacefully determine the best way to accommodate the well-deserved and legitimate aspirations of the Iraqi Kurds”.[140]

Before the Trump Administration takes concrete measures against China in late March 2018, Schumer and other Democratic leaders pressed Trump to focus more on China. Schumer said “China has stolen millions of jobs and trillions of dollars” but “administrations from both parties haven’t been strong enough to fight back”.[141][142][143]

In July 2018, after Trump criticized at the NATO Summit in Brussels Germany‘s decision to approve a new Russian-German gas pipeline under the Baltic Sea bypassing Poland and Ukraine, Schumer and House Minority Leader Pelosi released a joint paradoxical statement condemning the president’s comments as an embarrassment and his behavior was “another profoundly disturbing signal that the President is more loyal to President Putin than to our NATO allies.”[144]

Afghanistan

In October 2009, Schumer said, “It cost us $6 trillion and 4,500 lives, approximately, to bring stability to Iraq. Just in terms of the loss of life and treasure, do we want to do the same exercise in Afghanistan?” He opined the United States could potentially be able to keep itself safe without bringing stability to Afghanistan and advocated for American forces to be scaled back in Afghanistan in favor of more reliance on unmanned drone attacks.[145]

In April 2017, Schumer called for caution in Afghanistan in noting the casualties in the Iraq conflict and said the military would have to come to Congress in the event they wanted more American soldiers in Afghanistan.[146]

Iran nuclear deal

On August 6, 2015, Schumer announced his opposition to the nuclear deal with Iran.[147] Schumer planned to tell the White House, then his Senate colleagues, and then the public, but the White House leaked the news during the Republican debate in what CBS News described as an “apparent attempt to limit coverage”.[148] Arms control expert Jeffrey Lewis derided Schumer’s decision, noting that Schumer was making factually incorrect claims about the amount of time in which the treaty would allow inspection of Iranian nuclear facilities.[149] In what The Guardian described as a “shot across Schumer’s bow,” White House Press Secretary Josh Earnest said that fellow Democrats might remember Schumer’s decision when deciding whom to elect as their next majority leader.[150]

Israel

Schumer supported Israel in the 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict.[151] In March 2018, Schumer told AIPAC’s delegates that Israeli settlements in the Israeli-occupied West Bank, including East Jerusalem, have nothing to do with the Israeli–Palestinian conflict.[152][153]

Schumer is a co-sponsor of a Senate resolution expressing objection to the UN Security Council Resolution 2334, which condemned Israeli settlement-building in the occupied Palestinian territories as a violation of international law. Schumer criticized President Barack Obama, saying: “past administrations — both Democrat and Republican — have protected Israel from the vagaries of this biased institution [UN]. Unfortunately, by abstaining on United Nations Resolution 2334, this administration has not followed in that path.”[154]

In May 2017, Schumer co-sponsored the Israel Anti-Boycott Act, Senate Bill 720, which made it a federal crime, punishable by a maximum sentence of 20 years imprisonment,[155] for Americans to encourage or participate in boycotts against Israel and Israeli settlements in the occupied Palestinian territories if protesting actions by the Israeli government. The bill would make it legal for U.S. states to refuse to do business with contractors that engage in boycotts against Israel.[156]

Schumer introduced a Senate resolution celebrating the 50th anniversary of the reunification of Jerusalem.[157]

In May 2018, Schumer praised President Donald Trump for opening the U.S. embassy in Jerusalem, saying “I sponsored legislation to do this two decades ago, and I applaud President Trump for doing it.” [158][159] He had previously criticized Trump, accusing the President of “indecisiveness” for his former delays in implementing the move by waiving the Jerusalem Embassy Act of 1995, as previous presidents had done.[160]

North Korea

In February 2017, Schumer said that North Korea had demonstrated itself to be “an irresponsible nation in every way” and China could be used to curtail North Korea as most of North Korea’s imports and exports went through China. He advocated for the United States to tell China “they have to put the wood to North Korea in a much more serious way than they have done so far.”[161] In August, after Trump said North Korea would be “met with fire and fury like the world has never seen” in the event of continued threats against the United States, Schumer released a statement advocating for the United States to be “firm and deliberate with North Korea, but reckless rhetoric is not a strategy to keep America safe.”[162]

In May 2018, Schumer called for Kim Jong-un to be removed from the commemorative coin memorializing the 2018 North Korea–United States summit, citing Kim as a “brutal dictator” and offering the Peace House as a more appropriate alternative.[163] In June, Schumer was one of seven senior Democratic senators to sign a letter to Trump outlining the conditions of their caucus’s support for any deal resulting from the North Korea-US summit.[164] After Kim and Trump issued a joint statement, Schumer said the meeting between the two had given “a brutal and repressive dictatorship the international legitimacy it has long craved” and that the agreement was without detail on achieving a pathway to the Korean peninsula being denuclearized, how the United States would verify North Korea’s disarming, and an assurance of cessation for enrichment of plutonium and uranium from North Korea.[165] In a speech on the Senate floor, Schumer questioned what the United States had gained from the summit and added that the country had “won far stronger language on denuclearization” in previous agreements with North Korea. In response, Trump tweeted, “Thank you Chuck, but are you sure you got that right? No more nuclear testing or rockets flying all over the place, blew up launch sites. Hostages already back, hero remains coming home & much more!”[166]

Russia

In a June 3, 2008, op-ed in The Wall Street Journal, Schumer wrote that cooperative economic sanctions from the U.S., Britain, France, Germany, Russia and China could topple Iran‘s theocratic government. In discussing the importance of Russia’s cooperation, Schumer stated that “Mr. Putin is an old-fashioned nationalist who seeks to regain the power and greatness Russia had before the fall of the Soviet Union.” He followed it up by noting that “The anti-missile system strengthens the relationship between Eastern Europe and NATO, with real troops and equipment on the ground. It mocks Mr. Putin’s dream of eventually restoring Russian hegemony over Eastern Europe.”[167] The East European Coalition sent Schumer a letter regarding the article on June 10, 2008, writing that “As a supporter of democracy for the nations of Eastern Europe, which suffered greatly under ‘Russian hegemony over Eastern Europe,’ your suggestion that these nations be used as bargaining chips in order to appease Russia is troubling, inexplicable and unacceptable.”[168]

In August 2013, after Russia granted asylum to Edward Snowden, Schumer said Putin was behaving like a “school-yard bully” and added, “The relationship between the United States and Russia is more poisonous than any time since the Cold War because of all of this.”[169]

In December 2016, Schumer joined John McCain, Lindsey Graham, and Jack Reed in a letter to Senate Majority Leader McConnell urging the formation of a Senate select committee on cyber. Schumer stated that the panel would focus on Russian meddling and potential threats from other countries such as China and Iran.[170]

In December 2016, Schumer demanded a congressional inquiry into Russian meddling of U.S. affairs.[171] In January 2017 he said “Let me tell you, you take on the intelligence community, they have six ways from Sunday at getting back at you,” in response to those questioning the U.S. intelligence community over its assessments.[172] Later that month he introduced legislation to limit executive action on Russian sanctions.[173]

In a May 2017 Senate floor speech, Schumer called for the release of unedited transcripts of the meeting between Trump and Russian officials the previous week by the White House, saying the continued confidentiality would ensure “the American people will rightly doubt if their president can handle our nation’s most closely kept secrets.”[174] In July, Schumer disavowed claims that the Democratic Party considered Russia its top priority and named health care and economic stability for working-class families as their primary concerns. “Obviously Russia is in the news. Obviously we want Bob Mueller to be able to pursue and our committees to be able to pursue their investigations unimpeded.”[175]

Schumer spearheaded a non-binding resolution in July 2018 “warning President Trump not to let the Russian government question diplomats and other officials”. The resolution states the United States “should refuse to make available any current or former diplomat, civil servant, political appointee, law enforcement official or member of the Armed Forces of the United States for questioning by the government of Vladimir Putin. It passed 98-0.[176]

Gun laws

While serving in the House of Representatives, Schumer, along with California senator Dianne Feinstein, authored the 1994 Assault Weapons Ban which expired in 2004. The National Rifle Association and other gun groups (see gun politics) have criticized him for allegedly not knowing much about guns, alluding to various errors regarding the subject.[citation needed] Supporters of gun control legislation, however, give him much of the credit for passage of both the Assault Weapons Ban and the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act.[citation needed] The Assault Weapons Ban, which banned semi-automatic rifles, shotguns, and handguns with certain features, expired in September 2004 despite attempts by Schumer to extend it. He was one of 16 senators to vote against the Vitter Amendment, which prohibited the confiscation of legally owned firearms during a disaster.

While a target of gun rights organizations, Schumer has supported hunters, sponsoring legislation to provide millions in outdoor recreation grants to landowners who allow hunting and fishing on their private property. For these efforts, Field and Stream magazine honored Schumer in their “Hero Awards” in 2008.[177] Schumer is also a supporter of providing hunters with tax deductions for donating venison and other game to feeding programs.[178] In response to a question in a debate during his 2010 reelection campaign, Schumer has denied having a handgun or a permit for one and has produced a letter from NYPD stating that neither he nor his wife (Iris Weinshall) has a handgun license from NYC. In a statement from Brian Fallon, a Schumer aide, he “insisted that except for winning an NRA marksmanship award at age 14, the senator does not own a gun or have a license to carry one”.[179]

In February 2018, after the Stoneman Douglas High School shooting, Schumer was one of four Democratic senators to sign a letter to President Trump asserting that were he “to endorse legislation to require a background check on every gun purchase, without other poison pill provisions attached, we could finally move much closer towards the comprehensive system that you called for after the Stoneman Douglas attack” and that there was no justification in allowing individuals denied firearms by federally licensed dealers being able to “simply visit a gun show or go online to purchase the same gun that they were denied at the store.”[180]

In January 2019, Schumer was one of forty senators to introduce the Background Check Expansion Act, a bill that would require background checks for either the sale or transfer of all firearms including all unlicensed sellers. Exceptions to the bill’s background check requirement included transfers between members of law enforcement, loaning firearms for either hunting or sporting events on a temporary basis, providing firearms as gifts to members of one’s immediate family, firearms being transferred as part of an inheritance, or giving a firearm to another person temporarily for immediate self-defense.[181]

Health care reform

Schumer supported President Barack Obama’s health reform legislation; he voted for the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act in December 2009,[182] and he voted for the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010.[183]

In 2009, Schumer also proposed that any new government-run health insurance programs follow all the standards applicable to private insurance. He did this to “address fears that a public program would drive private insurers from the market.” Schumer commented, saying he wanted “a level playing field for competition”.[184]

In May 2017, in response to an amendment by Fred Upton to the American Health Care Act, Schumer released a statement saying the amendment “leaves Americans with pre-existing conditions as vulnerable as they were before under this bill” and compared it to “administering cough medicine to someone with stage 4 cancer.”[185] After the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) showed the American Health Care Act would cause millions of Americans to lose health coverage, Schumer said, “Republicans in Washington and the president should read this report cover to cover, throw their bill in the trash can and begin working with Democrats on a real plan to lower costs for the American people.”[186] In June, Schumer sent a letter to Majority Leader McConnell requesting a meeting between all senators for a discussion on the American Health Care Act, citing the need for both parties to “come together to find solutions to America’s challenges.”[187] Later that month, Schumer estimated the bill had a “50/50” chance of passing in the Senate and added that Democrats were doing everything they could to fight the measure, referring to the legislation as “devastating for the middle class.”[188]

Homeland security

As a senator from New York, Schumer has worked to secure homeland security funds for New York State and City and provide resources to its first responders. He delivered over $20 billion to support the state’s security and recovery efforts after the 9/11 terrorist attacks on New York City and worked to deliver $200 million in Homeland Security funds to protect New York City mass transit.[189][190][191]

Schumer has been a leader in the fight to continue fully funding the FIRE Grant program[192] administered by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The program allows fire departments and first responders nationwide to apply for grant funding for major purchases that localities have difficulty providing, namely apparatus and emergency vehicles. When the Bush administration pushed a plan to reduce the program from $1 billion to just under $300 million, Schumer helped lead an effort with local firefighters to block the cuts.[193]

In 2006, Schumer led a bipartisan effort, with the help of Republicans like Congressman Peter T. King (NY), to stop a deal approved by the Bush administration to transfer control of six United States ports to a corporation owned by the government of United Arab Emirates (UAE), Dubai Ports World (see Dubai Ports World controversy). The 9/11 Commission reported that, despite recent alliances with the U.S., the UAE had strong ties to Osama bin Laden and Al Qaeda prior to the 9/11 attacks. The measure in the House was H.R 4807, and in the Senate, S. 2333; these were introduced to require a 45-day review of this transfer of ownership. On March 9, 2006, Dubai Ports World withdrew its application to operate the ports.

In 1995, Schumer sponsored the Omnibus Counterterrorism Act of 1995 (H.R. 896) in the U.S. House of Representatives.[194]

Immigration

Schumer was one of the Gang of Eight, a bipartisan group of four Democratic and four Republican senators who wrote and sponsored a 2013 comprehensive immigration reform bill. At the time, Schumer was the chairman of the Immigration, Refugees, and Border Security subcommittee of the Senate Judiciary Committee.[195] In June 2013, the immigration bill passed the Senate with a strong majority—68-32, with 14 Republicans joining all Democrats—but the House of Representatives under Speaker John Boehner refused to take up the bill, and the legislation died.[196]

In April 2012, he introduced a bill that would kill Arizona’s anti-immigration law, SB 1070 and ones like it if the Supreme Court were to rule in favor of the states. He backed his position, saying: “States like Arizona and Alabama will no longer be able to get away with saying they are simply ‘helping the federal government’ to enforce the law when they are really writing their own laws and knowingly deploying untrained officers with a mission of arresting anyone and everyone who might fit the preconceived profile of an illegal immigrant.”[197]

In January 2018, Schumer stated that any agreement on the status of Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals before its March expiration would have to be included in the spending bill.[198] Schumer offered Trump congressional approval of upward of $20 billion for his border wall in exchange for protecting recipients of DACA. Trump declined the offer. A week later, Schumer announced that conversations on immigration and border security were resuming between the White House and himself.[199] In a March CNN op-ed, Schumer wrote that Trump had stood in the way of progress on “compromise proposals that both sides should be proud of” and charged the President and the White House with using Dreamers as “bargaining chips to push forward their anti-immigrant agenda.” He called on Trump to change course and said Americans would be aware that he was behind the prevention of Congress from settling the matter.[200] In June, ahead of a planned meeting between Trump and House Republicans for discussions on the compromise immigration bill, Schumer warned that moderates in the House would lose credibility if succumbing to pressure and enacting “the hard right’s agenda.”[201]

IndyMac Bank controversy

On June 26, 2008, Schumer took the extraordinary step of publicly releasing letters he had written to regulators regarding IndyMac Bank, the seventh largest savings and loan association and the ninth largest originator of mortgage loans in the United States, which he considered to be a severely troubled institution. Schumer wrote he was “concerned that IndyMac’s financial deterioration poses significant risks to both taxpayers and borrowers and that the regulatory community may not be prepared to take measures that would help prevent the collapse of IndyMac.” Many depositors at IndyMac panicked or from another perspective justifably acted and withdrew funds in the 11 days before IndyMac failed.[202]

An audit by the Treasury Department’s Inspector General would find that the primary causes of IndyMac’s failure were associated with its business strategy of originating and securitizing Alt-A loans on a large scale. When home prices declined in the latter half of 2007 and the secondary mortgage market collapsed, IndyMac was forced to hold $10.7 billion of loans it could not sell in the secondary market. IndyMac’s reduced liquidity was further exacerbated when account holders withdrew $1.55 billion in deposits in a “run” on the thrift following the public release of the letter. While the run was a contributing factor in the timing of IndyMac’s demise, the underlying cause of the failure was the unsafe and unsound manner in which the thrift was operated.[203]

Director of the Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS) John Reich immediately blamed IndyMac’s failure on the release of the letter. Reich said Schumer gave the bank a “heart attack” and opined, “Would the institution have failed without the deposit run? We’ll never know the answer to that question.”[204] Reich and top deputies later resigned or were removed amidst a Treasury Department audit and investigation revealing that Indymac had been allowed to backdate its financial reports.[205]

Schumer conceded his actions may have caused some depositors to withdraw their money prematurely, but suggested that “if OTS had done its job as regulator and not let IndyMac’s poor and loose lending practices continue, we wouldn’t be where we are today. Instead of pointing false fingers of blame, OTS should start doing its job to prevent future IndyMacs.” He pointed out that “IndyMac was one of the most poorly run and reckless of all the banks,” saying, “It was a spinoff from the old Countrywide, and like Countrywide, it did all kinds of profligate activities that it never should have. Both IndyMac and Countrywide helped cause the housing crisis we’re now in.”[206][207]

Despite IndyMac’s condition before the failure, the financial media criticized the senator sharply. CNBC financial analyst Jerry Bowyer charged that Schumer was responsible for the “second largest bank failure in US history.”[208] While opining that IndyMac’s failure was only a matter of time, banking consultant Bert Ely termed Schumer’s actions “wrong and irresponsible”.[209]

On October 18, 2008, The Wall Street Journal published an article suggesting that Schumer’s letter may have been prompted by an investment company’s interest in IndyMac.[210] His reported close ties to the founders of OneWest Bank have long been an interest to many action groups. On December 22, 2008, the Washington Post reported that OTS regional director in charge had been removed from his position for allowing IndyMac to falsify its financial reporting.[211][212] That same day, conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh not only continued to blame the senator, but recast IndyMac’s July bankruptcy as an “October Surprise” planned by Democrats to help win the 2008 election.[213]

Marijuana

In April 2018, Schumer said that he would back efforts to decriminalize marijuana at the federal level.[214] On April 20, a day known as 4/20, he announced his sponsorship of legislation “to remove marijuana from the country’s list of scheduled substances“. The bill would “establish funding streams for women and minority-owned marijuana businesses, and provide money for research into the public health effects of THC“.[215] On June 27, 2018, Schumer formally introduced the Marijuana Freedom and Opportunity Act.[216]

Mukasey nomination

In 2007, after Bush nominated former federal judge Michael Mukasey to become attorney general of the United States (replacing Gonzales, who had resigned), Schumer expressed support for Mukasey. Despite appearing troubled by Mukasey’s refusal to declare in public that waterboarding was illegal torture, Schumer announced on November 2 that he would vote to confirm Mukasey.[217] Schumer said that Mukasey assured him in a private meeting that he would enforce any law declaring waterboarding illegal. Schumer also said that Mukasey told him Bush would have “no legal authority” to ignore such a law.[218] The votes of Schumer and fellow Democratic senator Dianne Feinstein, to recommend Mukasey for confirmation allowed the confirmation to move on to the full Senate.

Same-sex marriage

Schumer at New York City’s gay pride parade in 2007

Schumer voted for the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) in 1996.[219] He opposed the Federal Marriage Amendment, saying in 2004 that DOMA made it obsolete.[220]

In March 2009, Schumer announced his support for same-sex marriage, noting that it “was time”.[221] Schumer previously supported civil unions. At a private dinner with gay leaders on March 22, 2009, Schumer said he not only currently supported same-sex marriage, but also backed a full reversal of DOMA.[222] When the New York State Senate took up a bill to legalize gay marriage in December 2009, Schumer, along with other statewide officials, aggressively lobbied wavering senators to support the legislation.[223]

Subprime mortgage and foreclosure crisis

In September 2007, Schumer proposed that the Office of Federal Housing Enterprise Oversight (OFHEO) raise Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac‘s conforming loan (“affordable”) limits from $417,000 to $625,000, thereby allowing these government-sponsored enterprises (GSEs) to back mortgages on homes priced up to $780,000 with a 20 percent down payment.[224]

Following the meltdown of the subprime mortgage industry in March 2007, Schumer proposed a federal government bailout of subprime borrowers in order to save homeowners from losing their residences and to shore up communities that were seeing neighborhoods destabilized due to foreclosures and the resulting decreases in neighboring home values.[225] As part of a package of regulatory reforms that Schumer has pushed in response to the subprime foreclosure crisis, he called for the creation of mortgage industry regulators to protect borrowers from deceptive lending practices and called for the Securities and Exchange Commission to relocate from Washington to New York so that it was in closer proximity to the industry it was charged with overseeing.[226]

Schumer’s top nine campaign contributors are all financial institutions that have contributed over $2.5 million to the senator.[227]

Taxes on high incomes

Schumer had been a staunch defender of low taxes on hedge fund and private equity managers in the past, arguing that this was necessary to protect the industry. Serving on both the Senate Banking and Finance Committees, Schumer was in a position to block attempts to tax their financial gains at the rate other taxpayers pay for income.[228] In 2010, however, Schumer suggested that a hedge-fund tax would be acceptable and not hurt the industry.[229]

In February 2012, Schumer said that he disagreed with the Obama administration’s call to raise taxes on those making more than $250,000 a year, calling for a million-dollar level instead. According to Schumer, “there are a lot of people who make above 250 who aren’t rich.”[230]

Technology and the Internet

In June 2011, the senator and colleague Joe Manchin (D-WV) sought a crackdown on Bitcoin currency, saying it facilitated illegal drug trade transactions. “The transactions leave no traditional [bank transfer] money trail for investigators to follow, and leave it hard to prove a package recipient knew in advance what was in a shipment,” which used an anonymizing network known as Tor.[231] One opinion website said the senators wanted “to disrupt [the] Silk Road drug website.”[232]

Schumer is a sponsor of S. 968, the controversial PROTECT IP Act which would restrict access to web sites judged to be infringing copyrights.[233] On January 18, 2012, the NY Tech Meetup and other cybertech organizations held a demonstration with 2,000 protesters in front of the offices of Schumer and Kirsten Gillibrand, New York’s other U.S. senator who also supported the bill.[234][235] Some demonstrators complained that the bill had originated with wealthy campaign contributors who would reward legislators for passing the bill.[236]

In March 2012, Schumer and Connecticut senator Richard Blumenthal gained national attention after they called upon Attorney General Eric Holder and the Department of Justice to investigate practices by employers to require Facebook passwords for employee applicants and workers.[237]

Facebook

Schumer has been described as an ally of Facebook amid debates around regulating Facebook or probing its involvement in various controversies, including Russian interference in the 2016 election.[238] In July 2018, Schumer confronted Senator Mark Warner, who is one of Facebook’s harshest critics, and told him that he ought to work with Facebook, not act in ways that could harm the company, because they needed to have a working relationship with Facebook.[238] Schumer’s daughter works as a marketing manager at Facebook.[238]

U.S. Attorney firings

As chair of the Subcommittee on Administrative Oversight and the Courts, Schumer took a lead role in the investigation of the dismissal of U.S. attorneys controversy.[239] Although he was at one point criticized for being a lead investigator of the affair while also chairing the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, such criticism was not sustained after the full dimensions of the controversy became apparent.[240][241]

On March 11, 2007, Schumer became the first lawmaker in either chamber to call for Attorney General Alberto Gonzales to resign for the firing of eight United States Attorneys. In an interview on CBS News‘ Face the Nation, Schumer said that Gonzales “doesn’t accept or doesn’t understand that he is no longer just the president’s lawyer.”[242] When Gonzales’ chief of staff, Kyle Sampson, resigned on March 13, Schumer said during a press conference that Gonzales was “carrying out the political wishes of the president” and declared that Sampson would “not be the next Scooter Libby,” meaning that he did not accept that Sampson had sole responsibility for the attorney’s controversy.[243]

Schumer, like other members of the Senate Judiciary Committee from both parties, was angered during Gonzales’ testimony on April 19, 2007; Gonzales answered many times that he didn’t know or couldn’t recall details about the controversy. When Schumer’s turn came to ask his last round of questions, he instead repeated his call for Gonzales to resign, saying that there was no point to further questioning since Gonzales had “answered, ‘I don’t know’ or ‘I can’t recall’ to close to a hundred questions” concerning the firings (most press reports counted 71 instances) and didn’t seem to know about the inner workings of his own department. Gonzales responded that the onus was on the committee to prove whether anything improper occurred. Schumer replied that Gonzales faced a higher standard, and that under this standard he had to give “a full, complete and convincing explanation” for why the eight attorneys were fired.[244]

Controversy and criticism

Gaza statements

Schumer, speaking at an Orthodox Union event in Washington D.C., in June 2010, made comments regarding Israel’s blockade of the Gaza Strip that were later criticized.[245] He called on Israel to “strangle them economically until they see that’s not the way to go”. He argued that the current Israeli blockade of the Gaza Strip is justified not only because it keeps weapons out of the Palestinian territory, but also because it shows the Palestinians living there that “when there’s some moderation and cooperation, they can have an economic advancement.”[246][247] He also said, “The Palestinian people still don’t believe in a Jewish state, in a two state solution … They don’t believe in the Torah. They don’t believe in King David. So, they don’t think it’s our land …”[248]

Immigration

While discussing an immigration bill on the Senate floor in 2010, Schumer likened Indian tech giant Infosys Technologies to a “chop shop.” When his statement set off a wave of outrage in India, the senator acknowledged his characterization was incorrect.[249][250] The remark was also criticized as “outrageous” by Ron Somers, head of the U.S.-India Business Council.[250]

Bicycle safety

Schumer is noted for his love of cycling in New York City, especially around his home in Brooklyn.[251] In 2011 he was reported to have joined a group of neighbors who live on his street in Park Slope, near Prospect Park. They attempted to remove a new “protected” bicycle path on their street,[252] which ran adjacent to the curb with a protection buffer provided by parallel-parked cars next to the bike lane.[253] While Schumer has not taken a public position on the traffic-calming project, whose most prominent feature is a two-way protected bike path, his wife Iris Weinshall is a prominent advocate against the project, and the New York Post reported that Schumer himself has lobbied behind the scenes against the bike path.[254] In addition, a major Schumer campaign contributor[255] has fought a controversial pro bono legal battle against the safety project, drawing criticism.[256]

Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee

Schumer was the chairman of the Democratic Senatorial Campaign Committee, part of the Democratic senate leadership, with primary responsibility for raising funds and recruiting Democratic candidates in the 2006 Senate election. When he took this post, he announced that he would not run for Governor of New York in 2006, as many had speculated he would. This step avoided a potentially divisive gubernatorial primary election in 2006 between Schumer and Eliot Spitzer, then New York’s attorney general.

While chairman in 2006, staffers of the committee obtained a copy of Maryland’s 2006 Republican senate candidate Michael Steele‘s credit report. A staff researcher used Steele’s social security number to obtain his credit report from TransUnion. The report was paid for with the DSCC credit card issued to the researcher’s supervisor. After an internal investigation, the Maryland Democratic Party determined the credit report was obtained illegally and reported the incident to the U.S. Attorney.[257] The staffer resigned and pleaded guilty to a misdemeanor charge of computer fraud and was sentenced to 150 hours of community service.[258] The supervisor resigned from the DSCC.[259]

Under Schumer, in the 2006 elections, the Democratic Party gained six seats in the senate, defeating incumbents in each of those races and regaining control of the senate for the first time since 2002. Of the closely contested races in the Senate in 2006, the Democratic Party lost only Tennessee. The incoming Senate Majority Leader, Harry Reid, persuaded Schumer to continue to serve another term as DSCC chair.

In 2009, for the 111th Congress, Schumer was succeeded as the DSCC chair by senator Bob Menendez of New Jersey.

Senate minority leader

Schumer attending the Inauguration of Donald Trump as president of the United States, January 20, 2017

Schumer is among the members of the Senate leadership meeting with Donald Trump and Mike Pence in the Oval Office, January 24, 2017

The Senate Democratic caucus elected Schumer minority leader in November 2016. Schumer had been widely expected to lead Senate Democrats following the 2015 retirement announcement of his predecessor, Harry Reid. He is the first New Yorker, as well as the first Jew, to serve as a Senate leader.[260]

Book

In January 2007, he published a book called Positively American: Winning Back the Middle-Class Majority One Family at a Time, outlining strategies with which Democrats could court middle-class voters. One of his aides at the time Daniel Squadron helped to write it, and they drew from the senator’s experience helping his party win in the 2006 midterm elections.[36][261]

Personal life

Schumer and his wife, Iris Weinshall, were married September 21, 1980. The ceremony took place at Windows on the World at the top of the north tower of the World Trade Center.[262] Weinshall was New York City‘s commissioner of transportation, from 2000 to 2007.[263] The Schumers have two children, Jessica and Alison, both graduates of their father’s alma materHarvard College. The older daughter, Jessica, served as chief of staff and general counsel of the Council of Economic Advisers from May 2013 to August 2015.[264] Alison was employed by Facebook, out of college, and is a marketing manager in the company’s New York office.[citation needed]

Electoral history

United States Senate election in New York, 1998
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Chuck Schumer 2,386,314
Independence Chuck Schumer 109,027
Liberal Chuck Schumer 55,724
total Chuck Schumer 2,551,065 54.62%
Republican Al D’Amato 1,680,203
Conservative Al D’Amato 274,220
Right to Life Al D’Amato 104,565
total Al D’Amato (Incumbent) 2,058,988 44.08%
Marijuana Reform Party Corinne Kurtz 34,281 0.73%
Green Joel Kovel 14,735 0.32%
Libertarian William McMillen 8,223 0.18%
Socialist Workers Rose Ana Berbeo 3,513 0.08%
Majority
Turnout
Democratic gain from Republican
United States Senate election in New York, 2004[265]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Chuck Schumer 4,384,907
Independence Chuck Schumer 216,198
Working Families Chuck Schumer 168,719
total Chuck Schumer (Incumbent) 4,769,824 71.2%
Republican Howard Mills 1,625,069 24.2%
Conservative Marilyn O’Grady 220,960 3.3%
Green David McReynolds 36,942 0.3%
Libertarian Don Silberger 19,073 0.3%
Builders Party Abe Hirschfeld 16,196 0.2%
Socialist Workers Martin Koppel 14,811 0.2%
Majority 3,144,755 46.92%
Turnout 6,702,875
Democratic hold Swing
United States Senate election in New York, 2010 [266]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Chuck Schumer 2,710,735 65.4%
Republican Jay Townsend 1,365,439 33.0%
Green Colia Clark 39,815 1.0%
Libertarian Randy Credico 25,975 0.6%
Total votes 4,141,964 100.0%
Democratic hold Swing
United States Senate election in New York, 2016 [267]
Party Candidate Votes % ±
Democratic Chuck Schumer 4,775,604 61.34% N/A
Working Families Chuck Schumer 241,381 3.10% N/A
Independence Chuck Schumer 150,457 1.93% N/A
Women’s Equality Chuck Schumer 45,297 0.58% N/A
Total Chuck Schumer 5,212,739 70.61% +2.97%
Republican Wendy Long 1,720,492 22.10% N/A
Conservative Wendy Long 267,186 3.43% N/A
Reform Wendy Long 17,781 0.23% N/A
Total Wendy Long 2,005,459 27.16% -0.58%
Green Robin Laverne Wilson 113,179 1.45% +0.45%
Libertarian Alex Merced 48,036 0.62% +0.02%
None Blank/Void/Scattering 406,189 5.22% N/A
Total votes 7,785,602 100.00%
Democratic hold Swing

Honorary degrees

Schumer has been awarded several honorary degrees in recognition of his political career. These include:

Location Date Institution Degree
 New York 1999 Hofstra University Doctorate [268]
 New York June 3, 1999 Hunter College Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) [269]
 New York May 21, 2000 Adelphi University Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) [270]
 New York June 2, 2002 New York Law School Doctor of Laws (LL.D) [271]
 New York May 2004 Pace University Doctor of Humane Letters (DHL) [272]
 New York October 21, 2007 Touro Law Center Juris Doctor (JD) [273]
 New York 2015 Brooklyn Law School Doctor of Laws (LL.D) [274]

See also

Uncategorized

British Approvals Board for Telecommunications

British Approvals Board for Telecommunications

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British Approvals Board for Telecommunications
Abbreviation BABT
Formation July 1982
Legal status Non-profit company
Purpose Telephone in the UK
Location
  • Hersham Place Technology Park, Molesey Road, Hersham, Walton-on-Thames, Surrey, KT12 4RZ, UK
Region served
UK
Parent organisation
TÜV SÜD Group
Website BABT

The British Approvals Board for Telecommunications (BABT) is a telecommunications certification body.

History[edit]

State monopoly[edit]

It was established in July 1982 by the UK government to provide type approval services to the telecommunications terminal industry. At that point in history, British Telecom was a state monopoly, and even by 1982 BT only allowed (via approval) the four British manufacturers (STCGECPlessey, and Thorn-Ericsson) to supply its twenty five types of phone through them, and not independently. However around 200,000 unapproved, independently bought phones were being used on the network. Loyalty to BT was of importance (commercially sensitive) to STC, Plessey and GEC as equipment for BT’s exchanges was made exclusively by them.

In the same year, BT was becoming more commercially minded, opening up around one hundred new BT Phone Shops having become separated from the GPO through the British Telecommunications Act 1981 which also created the BABT. In 1982 there was a step-change in types of BT phones entering the market, and technology used for connecting phones, and the BABT was needed with a greater variety of phones than was previously available: BT was about to lose its monopoly on supplying phones.

Mechanism of approval[edit]

BABT “Green Dot” label

From July 1982, manufacturers could submit phones to be approved by BABT for a cost of £1,700, and if approved would carry the green circular label (right). The main four British suppliers of telephones were very wary about supplying to non-BT independent retailers. At the same time BT was introducing its so-called IXT phones (IneXpensive Telephone), designed for the new plug-and-socket connections – another innovation. Philips TMC (formerly the Telephone Manufacturing Company) also made the new (more electronic) IXT phones.[1][2] The British telephone sockets were introduced on 19 November 1981. On 19 July 1982, the government announced its desire to privatise BT, which happened in late 1984. By 1982, 15 million British homes had a phone, with 5 out of 6 only having one phone. Adding an extra phone without the new sockets was heavy work.

In the 1980s, it shared offices with the BEAB in Hersham, Surrey. The Telecommunications Act 1984 detailed standards for modems, which had to conform to BABT standards.

Since its incarnation, BABT has established itself as a Notified Body in Europe and has a number of appointments such as the IMEI allocation authority for GSM terminals under appointment from the GSM Association. In May 1992 it gave its first GSM approval to Orbitel.

Structure[edit]

BABT is wholly owned by TÜV SÜD Product Service, Germany’s leading testing and certification body.

Function[edit]

BABT is a Notified Body for the following European Directives: 98/13/EC TTE & SESE Directive (now superseded by the R&TTE Directive); 89/336/EEC EMC Directive; 73/23/EEC Low Voltage Directive; 1999/5/EC R&TTE Directive. BABT is a Competent Body for the following Directives: 89/336/EEC EMC Directive

See also[edit]